2006
DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.08.012
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Association between Amygdala Hyperactivity to Harsh Faces and Severity of Social Anxiety in Generalized Social Phobia

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Cited by 461 publications
(362 citation statements)
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“…In non-ASD populations, including both non-clinical populations and in those diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) or generalized social phobia, increased amygdala activation in response to faces is well established. This has been observed in adults (Bishop, Duncan, & Lawrence, 2004; Brühl, Delsignore, Komossa, & Weidt, 2014; Phan, Fitzgerald, Nathan, & Tancer, 2006) and in children and adolescents (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2005; Monk et al, 2008), with results pointing to right amygdala activation being uniquely associated with internalizing symptoms. For example, in participants with SAD relative to controls, those with SAD showed increased right amygdala activation and decreased left amygdala activation to neutral faces relative to oval stimuli (Cooney, Atlas, Joormann, Eugène, & Gotlib, 2006).…”
Section: Proposed Model Of Etiological Factors Associated With the Dementioning
confidence: 86%
“…For example, in participants with SAD relative to controls, those with SAD showed increased right amygdala activation and decreased left amygdala activation to neutral faces relative to oval stimuli (Cooney, Atlas, Joormann, Eugène, & Gotlib, 2006). Further, amygdala activation to interpersonal threat (i.e., fearful faces) has been found to be positively correlated with severity of social anxiety symptoms (Phan et al, 2006). However, the type of internalizing condition and stimulus may determine the direction or presence of activation.…”
Section: Proposed Model Of Etiological Factors Associated With the Dementioning
confidence: 99%
“…Instead, they show hyperscanning as reflected by increased scanpath length and short fixation periods also on non-diagnostic features such as hair or ears [47]. Interestingly, these patients show hyperactivation of the amygdala [48][50]. In line with the above mentioned hypothesized functional role of the amygdala, one may speculate that patients with social phobia initially show enhanced reflexive gaze shifts toward the eye region but subsequently avoid scanning this feature to reduce an upcoming fear of being observed and evaluated by others.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 97%
“…However, the amygdala was not activated in response to our stimuli. This may be due to the nature of our stimuli, which were neutral or happy, and contrasted with the harsh and angry expressions used in previous studies that reported amygdala hyperactivation (Davies et al, 2017; Gentili et al, 2008; Phan et al, 2006; Stein et al, 2002). Insula activation was observed in our study, consistent with the finding of other studies (Boehme et al, 2014; Choi et al, 2016; Gentili et al, 2008; Kim et al, 2018; Straube et al, 2004).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 97%
“…The distress task measured attitudes toward social cues by asking whether participants felt distress while viewing a set of facial images of people as a simulated audience. Previous studies have frequently focused on negative stimuli, such as angry faces, to evoke social anxiety (Phan et al, 2006; Stein et al, 2002). In ordinary social situations, however, the audience is not expressing anger because the speaker is clumsy, and can maintain a neutral expression or rather smile.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Based on animal models of fear of learning (Davis & Whalen, 2001;LeDoux, 2000), one hypothesis predicts that amygdalar dysfunction is common to a variety of anxiety disorders. Indeed, amygdalar hyperactivity has been observed during symptom provocation or negative emotional processing in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Rauch et al, 2000;Shin et al, 2004Shin et al, , 2005, social anxiety disorder (Phan, Fitzgerald, Nathan, & Tancer, 2006;Stein, Goldin, Sareen, Zorrilla, & Brown, 2002), panic disorder (van den Heuvel et al, 2005) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (van den Heuvel et al, 2004) as well as specific phobia (Dilger et al, 2003;Schienle, Schäfer, Walter, Stark, & Vait, 2005;Straube, Mentzel, & Miltner, 2006;Veltman et al, 2004). Shared symptoms of anxiety disorders, such as an exaggerated fear response, might be reflected in shared neurobiology (Etkin & Wager, 2007).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 97%
“…Behavioural inhibition and introversion have been linked with hyper-reactivity of brain structures such as the amygdala and insular cortices (Stein et al 2002(Stein et al , 2007Schwartz et al, 2003;Phan et al 2006;Hooker et al 2008). Therefore, Smoller and colleagues investigated the relationship between the RGS2 variant and functional reactivity of the amygdala and the insulae via neuroimaging.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 98%
“…Wang, 2010). Of interest, data indicate that deliberately diminishing negative affective responses yields increased activation in lateral and dorsal regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and=or decreased activation in the amygdala (Phan, Fitzgerald, Nathan, & Tancer, 2006) suggesting that the PFC exerts a top-down, inhibitory influence through the medial PFC (e.g., BA 10 and 9) given its connections with the dorsolateral PFC and amygdala (Price, 2005). Studies of social stress have also shown a potential modulator role for the left PFC (BA 9 and 10) on the right amygdala (J.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 98%
“…5). This finding is surprising, as various neuroimaging studies typically associate SAD with amygdala hyperactivity during task or rest (Birbaumer et al 1998;Schneider et al 1999;Stein et al 2002;Phan et al 2006) and enhanced coupling with cognitive control regions (Brühl et al 2014).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 98%
“…At the same time, deficiencies in emotion identification and discrimination skills negatively affect the communication skills of individuals with SAD (Valença et al 2005). Despite studies in the literature (Straube et al 2004, Phan et al 2006, Yoon et al 2007, it was found that there was no difference in emotion identification and discrimination social cognition skills of individuals with social anxiety problems compared to those without social anxiety. There are also studies (Campbell et al 2009, Garner et al 2009, Arrais et al 2010 showing that social anxiety has low emotion identification and discrimination skills.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…A large body of literature among typically developing adults points to functional differences in brain activity, in particular among those with anxiety disorders compared to those without [Phan, Fitzgerald, Nathan, & Tancer, 2006;Sato, Yoshikawa, Kochiyama, & Matsumura, 2004;Whalen et al, 2001]. Specifically, high levels of social anxiety have been robustly linked with greater amygdala activation in these studies.…”
Section: Central Nervous Systemmentioning
confidence: 89%
“…[15] as evidence for this statement. According to scite [16], this reference has received 259 mentioning citation statements, 23 supporting citation statements, and three contradicting citation statements (Fig. 2).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 84%
“…The Wikipedia article on "Amygdala" states, "In 2006, researchers observed hyperactivity in the amygdala when patients were shown threatening faces or confronted with frightening situations. Patients with severe social phobia showed a correlation with increased response in the amygdala" citing Phan et al [14] as evidence for this statement. According to scite [15], this reference has received 259 mentioning citation statements, 23 supporting citation statements, and 3 contradicting citation statements (Figure 2).…”
Section: Accepted Articlementioning
confidence: 99%
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