2006
DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.08.012
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Association between Amygdala Hyperactivity to Harsh Faces and Severity of Social Anxiety in Generalized Social Phobia

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Cited by 468 publications
(378 citation statements)
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“…The amygdala is centrally involved in the acquisition of fear conditioning in humans (Milad et al 2007; Alvarez et al 2008), an inference supported by converging evidence from several sources. For example, neuroimaging studies indicate increased amygdala response in reaction to fear stimuli in individuals with PTSD (Shin et al 1997; Rauch et al 2000; Bryant et al 2008), panic disorder (van den Heuvel et al 2005; Domschke et al 2008) and social phobia (Tillfors et al 2001, 2002; Phan et al 2006). Although there is some evidence for increased amygdala reactivity in GAD (McClure et al 2007; Monk et al 2008) and OCD (van den Heuvel et al 2004; Van Laere et al 2006), that pattern has been shown in only a minority of studies (Shin & Liberzon, 2010).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…In humans, amygdala activation is a reliable predictor of anxiety (39-43). Activation of the amygdala is positively correlated with severity of social anxiety symptoms (44). Moreover, amygdala volume is increased in generalized anxiety disorders (45, 46).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…[89] Various experimental models have observed similar hyperactivity in amygdala under the state of anxiety. [610] Hence, flupirtine as a neuronal Kv7 channel opener probably inhibited this hyperactivity by hyperpolarization of neuronal membrane and thus, reduced the severity of preoperative anxiety. [4] These findings are further supported by a previous trail demonstrating anxiolytic effects of flupirtine in albino rats without untoward side effects.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
(Expert classified)
“…Individuals with social phobia, for example, demonstrate increased amygdala reactivity in response to social stimuli and this hyperactivity is correlated with increased severity in anxiety symptoms (Phan et al 2006; Thomas et al 2001). FXS, which brings with it a host of anxiety-related clinical problems, might be expected to mimic these findings.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…[49]), negative (e.g. [50]), or angry faces (e.g. [51]) in social phobia requires an increased neuronal activity within the amygdala.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…It is not excluded that anxiety played a role in our finding that ASD participants are oversensitive to low intensity fear. Indeed, amygdala activation in response to fearful emotions was previously shown to be increased in participants with clinical anxiety [Phan et al, ; Shin and Liberzon, ]. In contrast, here, amygdala activity and anxiety did not correlate in either group.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Finally, trait anxiety is highly comorbid of ASD [van Steensel et al, ] and dramatically influences the processing of facial emotions [e.g., Rossignol et al, ]. In particular, trait anxiety was shown to correlate with amygdala activity in previous studies [Phan et al, ; Shin and Liberzon, ]. Thus, in this experiment, measured trait anxiety in a subsample of participants and assessed the difference in anxiety level between our two groups.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The processing of threat-related stimuli in different anxiety disorders might differ in the extent of automatic processing. For example, Phan et al (2006) show a correlation of the activation of the amygdala to negative faces with severity of social anxiety symptoms but not with state or trait anxiety, and Rossignol et al (2012b) show that heightened P2 and P3 to angry faces is associated with social anxiety but not with trait anxiety, indicating differences in early automatic processing. Other studies suggest a dissociation between SAD and generalized anxiety disorder (Blair et al, 2008b).…”
Section: General Discussion and Future Directionsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Yoon et al (2007) conducted a further analysis of the data by Phan et al (2006) and found higher activation of the amygdala and the insula to high vs. low arousing emotional (i.e., angry, disgusted, fearful, sad, and happy) faces. In line with these studies, studies assessing valence judgments show higher activation of the amygdala to negative (angry, fearful, and disgusted) faces (Klumpp et al, 2010), higher activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula to disgusted faces (Amir et al, 2005), and higher activation of the ACC and MPFC to sad faces (Labuschagne et al, 2012).…”
Section: Automatic Brain Responses To Threat-related Stimuli In Sadmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…There are also a few methods to regulate anxiety. For example, patients with SAD are more likely to be anxious about the negative expressions of others (Phan, Fitzgerald, Nathan, & Tancer, 2006; Stein, Goldin, Sareen, Zorrilla, & Brown, 2002; Straube, Mentzel, & Miltner, 2005), so patients' anxiety levels can be controlled by varying the facial expressions on VR avatars used in VRET (Qu, Brinkman, Ling, Wiggers, & Heynderickx, 2014). Additionally, in public speaking settings, there have been attempts to control patients' anxiety levels by adjusting the number of audience members they see (Kampmann et al, 2016a; North, North, & Coble, 1998; Stupar-Rutenfrans, Ketelaars, & van Gisbergen, 2017).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…One limitation concerns our stimulus material, which included only one emotional expression, namely varying intensities of anger. Several studies have shown that socially anxious individuals exhibit alterations in the processing of facial expressions exhibiting not only overt aggression (anger) but also milder forms of hostile expression that signal disapproval, such as disgust and contempt (Stein et al, 2002; Amir et al, 2005; Phan et al, 2006). Hence, future studies should attempt to investigate how the present findings extend to other forms of hostile facial expression.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…These results may reflect alterations in early visual processing, which possibly stem from hypersensitivity to threatening cues in associated subcortical structures (Straube et al, 2005; Phan et al, 2006; Stein et al, 2007). Accordingly, subliminal threat cues have been shown to elicit a robust neural response, particularly in anxiety-prone individuals (Li et al, 2008; Ball et al, 2012; Brooks et al, 2012).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Acute alcohol consumption has been shown to diminish subjective anxiety (Levenson et al, 1980; Sher et al, 2007), impair recognition of threatening/angry faces (Borrill et al, 1987), and reduce the attentional bias towards and negative perception of threatening faces (Stevens et al, 2008; Stevens et al, 2009). Interestingly, it has been proposed that alcohol is used by patients with social phobia, who have consistently been shown to exhibit exaggerated amygdala reactivity to threatening faces (Etkin and Wager, 2007; Phan et al, 2006; Stein et al, 2002), as a coping strategy in order to dampen the effect of anxiety (Carrigan and Randall, 2003). The current study provides evidence in humans that alcohol's effects on fear/threat processing and anxiety may be mediated by its attenuation of reactivity of the amygdala to threat signals.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%