2006
DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.08.012
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Association between Amygdala Hyperactivity to Harsh Faces and Severity of Social Anxiety in Generalized Social Phobia

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Cited by 461 publications
(362 citation statements)
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“…Most of these parameters correlated positively with symptom severity. These results also fit in well with other recent imaging studies, suggesting that threat processing in anxiety disorders is associated with increased activity in amygdala, hippocampus 21 , 25 , 26 , 60 , 61 , 62 and occipital cortex, 27 , 62 or in dorsal ACC and mPFC, 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 areas that have been implicated in selective attention, threat bias and monitoring. 56 , 63 , 64 , 65 , 66 , 67 , 68 …”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 91%
“…However, a number of novel findings suggest that while decreased allocation of lateral and ventral prefrontal resources seems to be an important characteristic of participants with non-clinical high trait anxiety or worry, 15 , 16 activation in these areas is more likely to be increased in clinical anxiety disorders during threat processing. In particular, studies have reported increased activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) in specific phobia, 17 social anxiety disorder, 18 , 19 panic disorder 20 , 21 and generalised anxiety disorder. 22 Similarly, anxiety-specific threat processing has increasingly been associated with heightened activation in dorsolateral (dlPFC), 23 , 24 ventrolateral (vlPFC) 20 , 21 , 25 and ventromedial PFC (vmPFC).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…However, in another study, when angry faces were presented for 500 ms, youth with generalized anxiety disorder relative to comparisons showed greater ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation to angry faces (Monk et al, 2006). In contrast to several studies in anxious adults that examined amygdala activation to angry faces when awareness was not restricted (Phan, Fitzgerald, Nathan, & Tancer, 2006; Stein, Goldin, Sareen, Zorrilla, & Brown, 2002; Stein, Simmons, Feinstein, & Paulus, 2007), we found no group differences in amygdala activation. Indeed, the amygdala was not particularly responsive.…”
Section: Anxietycontrasting
confidence: 99%
“…Supporting "In agreement with previous work" indicates support, while "the trisomic clones showed similar aberrations, albeit to a lesser degree (Supplemental Figure S2B)" provides evidence for this supporting statement. "In contrast to several studies in anxious adults that examined amygdala activation to angry faces when awareness was not restricted (Phan, Fitzgerald, Nathan, & Tancer, 2006;Stein, Goldin, Sareen, Zorrilla, & Brown, 2002;Stein, Simmons, Feinstein, & Paulus, 2007), we found no group differences in amygdala activation. "…”
Section: Citation Statement Classification Explanationcontrasting
confidence: 99%
“…This citation statement refers to Phan et al 2006 without providing evidence that supports or contrasts the claims made in the cited study.…”
Section: Mentioningmentioning
confidence: 93%
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“…Given that subcallosal frontal regions, such as the OFC, serve important roles in top-down regulation of amygdala reactivity to control negative affect (i.e., anxiety) and mediate threat perception (6), this UF white matter tract is suggested to play a key role in emotional responding (24). This is consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging studies implicating aberrant reactivity in amygdala to social threat and scrutiny in GSAD (2-4), and thus abnormalities in UF which carries the most prominent fibers between these two regions may explain why differential reactivity exists. This finding is consistent with recent functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the OFC in social anxiety disorder (25,26).…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 89%
“…The current results also fit with the neuroscientific literature on amygdala hyperactivity for emotional faces in social phobia ( Lira Yoon, Fitzgerald, Angstadt, McCarron, & Phan, 2007 ; Phan, Fitzgerald, Nathan, & Tancer, 2006 ; Straube, Mentzel, & Miltner, 2005 ; Veit et al, 2002 ). Recent studies on the functional role of amygdala responses to facial expressions suggest that activity in this brain region is implicated in triggering reflexive gaze shifts towards the eyes ( Gamer and Büchel, 2009 , Gamer et al, 2013 ).…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 89%
“…Of note, our meta-analysis highlighted for the first time also areas that are more active in HC as compared to SAD during face perception, namely in a cluster of the occipital visual cortex (lingual gyrus) and in the posterior cingulate, Finally, consistently with the other available meta-analyses and with the vast majority of functional brain imaging studies, we identified an abnormal activation in the amygdalae of SAD patients as compared to HCs in response to face stimuli (e.g. in the literature 8,11,12,14,35,45 ).…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 88%
“…in the literature 11,13,14,31,33,35,37,38 ), while others found a lateralized greater amygdala response. For instance, several works identified an altered response in the right amygdala only, 13,14,31,37 while others reported an opposite pattern (e.g. Gentili et al…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…The current findings extend the existing literature and show that socially anxious individuals have a processing bias (Hirsch and Clark, 2004) not only toward visual social signals of threat (Merckelbach et al, 1989; Stein et al, 2002; Straube et al, 2004; Kolassa and Miltner, 2006; Phan et al, 2006; Blair et al, 2008; Moser et al, 2008; Mühlberger et al, 2009), but also in response to social chemosensory signals of anxiety. This processing bias involves both early attentional, as well as late behaviorally relevant information processing.…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 87%
“…This is reflected in enhanced early (N170) and late (LPP) ERPs in HSA participants. Previous studies have shown enhanced automatic guidance of motivated attention (Schupp et al, 2004) toward fearful faces in social anxiety (Mühlberger et al, 2009), and socially anxious individuals have been shown to respond to angry or fearful faces with increased amygdala activation (Straube et al, 2004; Phan et al, 2006). …”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 98%
“…The response pattern of anterior dorsal ACC supports previous findings of increased activation in medial prefrontal cortex areas in response to threatening stimuli or situations in patients with anxiety disorders [32], including SAD patients (for example, [6,8,66], but see [19,37,62]). Our results suggest a time-independent, constant affective-cognitive processing of threat in SAD due to the assumed role of midline regions of prefrontal cortex.…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 87%
“…Especially the anterior insula has been shown to play an important role in the processing of visceral and autonomic responses to emotional stimuli (for example, [30,74]) and the integration of affective arousal responses with the perception of current physiological states [75]. Although several studies found a differential activation between SAD patients and controls in the insula (for example, [5,8,10,63,66]) others did not (for example, [3,6,13,60,61]). The delayed emergence of insula hyperactivation in SAD patients in the present study might indicate an increased monitoring of bodily states that follows after an initial phase of arousal and hypervigilance during the confrontation with disorder-related video clips.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…13, 14 Earlier, studies of functional alterations in the fusiform gyrus to emotional faces have been inconsistent in SAD with reports of hypo- 25 and hyper-reactivity, 18 as well as null findings. 14, 17 In line with our results, a meta-analysis by Etkin and Wager 6 showed that SAD was associated with fusiform hyper-reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. In contrast to the study by Gentili et al 25 that showed fusiform hypoactivation in response to both emotional and neutral faces in combination compared with scrambled pictures, we studied the difference in activation between fearful and neutral faces including only the emotional component of face processing.…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 86%
“…LSAS-SR was included as predictor in the second-level, group analysis. The amygdala was chosen as seed region, because reactivity here was associated with SAD severity, in accordance with earlier studies 15, 16, 17 and because the amygdala is a core component of the fear network that is proposed to be crucially involved in SAD neuropathology. 6, 8 …”
Section: Methodssupporting
(Expert classified)
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“…Complementing these investigations, here we show that similar effects are obtained with task-irrelevant distracters inducing specific emotions (i.e., anxiety). These findings are also in line with evidence linking hyperactivity of the ventral system during processing of threat-related cues, both in non-clinically anxious but anxiety-prone participants [9], [10] and in clinically anxious patients [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [42], [43]. Fewer studies, however, also reported deficient recruitment of activity in the dorsal regions (e.g.…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 85%
“…However, further investigation of the emotion impact on WM performance according to the level of confidence (LOC; 1 = lowest, 3 = highest) identified a significant detrimental effect of angry face distracters on the responses associated with the highest level of confidence (i.e., LOC3) (Figure 2). A two-way ANOVA on items correctly identified as old yielded a significant level of confidence (LOC1, LOC2, LOC3) x distracter type (emotional, neutral, scrambled) interaction (F [4], [60]  = 6.24; p<0.0003). Second, post-hoc analyses showed that the emotional distraction had an impairing effect only on LOC3, with the emotional distracters being associated with lower level of performance compared to both neutral (p<0.005) and scrambled distracters (p<0.0002).…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 93%
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