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Cited by 460 publications
(360 citation statements)
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“…Since social anxiety and sex differences have also been shown to predict the amygdala response to angry faces (McClure et al, 2004 ; Phan et al, 2006 ) we examined the influence of these factors on amygdala activity. Neither were found to independently predict the amygdala response, and all reported correlations remained significant after partialing out the effects of social anxiety (FNE) and sex differences (See Supplementary Material ).…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…As expected, state and trait anxiety scores were correlated ( r = 0.50, P < 0.01). Given that recent evidence has shown social anxiety influences the neural response to fearful and angry faces (Phan et al, 2006 ; Evans et al, 2007 ) we also sought to account for the influence of this dimension. Participants therefore completed the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) revised scale, a measure of sensitivity to negative evaluation by others and avoidance of social-evaluative situations (Carleton et al, 2006 ).…”
Section: Methodsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Amygdala over-reactivity elicited by implicit or non-conscious processing of threat-related stimuli has been reported in current depressive disorder [7781] (for review, [82] ), generalized anxiety disorder [83] , generalized social phobia/anxiety disorder [8385] , specific phobia [86] , and panic disorder [83,86] . Excessive amygdala activity elicited by masked threat faces has also been associated with a dimension of trait anxiety and with neuroticism in otherwise healthy people [87] consistent with a trait-like phenotype of hyper-reactivity to sources of threat (Table 1).…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…But even though an unavoidable confrontation with individual anxiety-laden situations is assumed to have effect on ADHD symptomatology, no causal direction between ADHD and anxiety can be stated [ 60 ]. An overall increased level of arousal as well as the tendency to hyper-focus can facilitate the development of an anxiety disorder [ 61 , 62 ]. Different studies about the comorbidity of ADHD and anxiety disorders underline these findings.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…However, a number of factors other than childhood trauma are also linked to amygdala response including sex, (Killgore and Yurgelun-Todd, 2001; Schneider et al, 2000) severity of illness, (Drevets, 2003) anxiety, (Phan et al, 2006; Etkin and Wager, 2007) adult onset trauma (Shin et al, 2005) and basal glucocorticoid activity (Drevets et al, 2002). …”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…A total of 1297 publications were retrieved from initial search, among which 37 studies met the inclusion criteria (654 participants in the SAD groups and 594 participants in the control groups). There were 15 studies that adopted emotional faces as task stimuli [ 6 , 10 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 ], 8 that presented specific situations as task stimuli [ 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 ], and the other 14 employed other types of tasks [ 7 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 ]. In total, the coordinates where SAD groups performed significantly better or significantly worse than control groups were 335 and 115 respectively (see specific characteristics in Table 1 ).…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Task Activations. The EFMT is designed to detect between group differences in amygdala activity, [10,14] and thus, we restrict our report of activations to between group results. gSAD patients showed greater right amygdala activity than HCs in the fearful versus happy faces contrast (P < .05, cluster extent > 200 voxels).…”
Section: Functional Mri Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Evidence of a link between amygdala hyperactivity and symptom severity suggests it is a core deficit in the pathophysiology of gSAD [10] . Although less commonly implicated [11] , abnormalities within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are hypothesized to underlie gSAD patients’ failure to effectively modulate amygdala reactivity, consequently leading to enhanced anxiety, social threat perception, and/or reticence to engage in social interactions [12] .…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Although it has been argued that fear and anger are avoidance‐ and approach‐related emotions, respectively, they are both conceptualized as threat‐related emotions and previous research has shown links between shyness and threat‐related biases in children (e.g., LoBue & Pérez‐Edgar, ; Muris, Merckelbach, & Damsma, ; Pérez‐Edgar et al, ). Neuroimaging studies provide further support of both anger and fear being conceptualized as threat‐related emotions, with each being associated with heightened amygdala activity, a key brain region implicated in social and threat‐processing and perception (e.g., Etkin & Wager, ; Klumpp, Angstadt, Nathan, & Phan, ; Phan, Fitzgerald, Nathan, & Tancer, ).…”
Section: Methodsmentioning
confidence: 90%
“…The possible reorganization of the sensory visual cortex correspondent to alterations in motivational thresholds associated with excessive social apprehension is supported by animal and human work revealing that the functional neuroarchitecture of the adult visual cortex is subject to changes related to behavioral contingencies (Karmarkar & Dan, 2006; Li et al, 2004) and re-entrant modulation from higher visual areas including temporal cortex and deep structures such as the amygdala (Damasio, 1998; Leppänen & Nelson, 2009; Sabatinelli et al, 2005; 2009)—areas consistently shown during functional neuroimaging to be hyper-reactive to facial stimuli in social phobia patients (Birbaumer et al, 1998; Evans et al, 2008; Phan et al, 2006; Schneider et al, 1999; Stein et al, 2002; Straube et al, 2004, Veit et al, 2002). Although speculative, the heightened attention to emotional faces may be the result of visual system plasticity secondary to chronic expectations of interpersonal failure typical of social anxiety (Andrews et al, 1994; Foa et al, 1996; Poulton & Andrews, 1996; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 96%
“…Although heightened sensitivity specific to angry expressions would seem most consistent with the nosology of social anxiety, vigilance to other expressions has frequently been revealed in both ERP (Kolassa et al, 2007; 2009; Wieser et al, 2010) and hemodynamic imaging (Amir et al, 2005, Birbaumer et al, 1998; Phan et al, 2006; Stein et al, 2002) studies—even to happy faces (Yoon et al, 2007; Straube et al, 2005) and aversive non-social scenes (Shah et al, 2009). Much of the evidence for exaggerated reactivity to “harsh” facial expressions has been demonstrated as the mean response to heterogeneous aversive displays (angry, fearful, disgusted) (e.g., Moser et al, 2008; Phan et al, 2006; Stein et al, 2002).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…On the whole, these studies failed to find a consistent association between BIS/trait anxiety scores and autonomic responses to stimuli or tasks designed to activate the BIS [26,30,[35][36][37][38][39]48,51]. In addition to the evidence of dissociation between BI and trait anxiety on the one hand and the amygdala on the other, there is evidence of neural dissociation between BI and trait anxiety.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 96%
“…No or inconsistent correlations between CW-BIS, SP(SR)Q, and STAI-T and hypothesized neural substrates of the BIS (ie, amygdala) as indexed by SCL and SR is therefore a relatively consistent finding (see also [38,39]) and may expose a lack of sensitivity/specificity in these self-report measures of BIS temperament. The suggestion that STAI-T is more sensitive to affective tone and physiologic output of the BIS than the CW-BIS scale [30] is not consistent with the data of Cornwell et al [37], which showed that STAI-T did not correlate with SCL or SR at baseline or during speech performance.…”
Section: Neurobiologymentioning
confidence: 88%
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“…Increased amygdala responsiveness to emotional face processing has been a typical finding in fMRI studies of social anxiety patients (Stein et al 2002; Veit et al 2002; Straube et al 2004, 2005; Phan et al 2006; Yoon et al 2007). Nevertheless, it was not always obvious whether fusiform gyrus showed an abnormal activation, as few authors have specifically investigated fusiform gyrus activation in SAD.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 96%
“…Consistent with our findings, an fMRI study reported that children with this disorder tended to show reduced right fusiform gyrus activation, particularly in response to ‘forward’ faces compared to ‘angled’ faces, with no increase in amygdala activation (Garrett et al 2004). Specifically in social phobia, several studies did not find abnormal fusiform gyrus response to faces (Phan et al 2006; Campbell et al 2007; Stein et al 2007 b ), whereas Straube et al (2004) observed greater fusiform gyrus activation relative to control subjects for implicit, and not explicit, processing of angry faces. In another study, fusiform gyrus response to faces was larger in social phobic patients with high anxiety scores (Straube et al 2005).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 97%
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