BackgroundMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in cancer development and progression, acting as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Our previous studies have revealed that miR-148a and miR-152 are significantly down-regulated in gastrointestinal cancers. Interestingly, miR-148b has the same "seed sequences" as miR-148a and miR-152. Although aberrant expression of miR-148b has been observed in several types of cancer, its pathophysiologic role and relevance to tumorigenesis are still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which miR-148b acts as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer.ResultsWe showed significant down-regulation of miR-148b in 106 gastric cancer tissues and four gastric cancer cell lines, compared with their non-tumor counterparts by real-time RT-PCR. In situ hybridization of ten cases confirmed an overt decrease in the level of miR-148b in gastric cancer tissues. Moreover, the expression of miR-148b was demonstrated to be associated with tumor size (P = 0.027) by a Mann-Whitney U test. We also found that miR-148b could inhibit cell proliferation in vitro by MTT assay, growth curves and an anchorage-independent growth assay in MGC-803, SGC-7901, BGC-823 and AGS cells. An experiment in nude mice revealed that miR-148b could suppress tumorigenicity in vivo. Using a luciferase activity assay and western blot, CCKBR was identified as a target of miR-148b in cells. Moreover, an obvious inverse correlation was observed between the expression of CCKBR protein and miR-148b in 49 pairs of tissues (P = 0.002, Spearman's correlation).ConclusionsThese findings provide important evidence that miR-148b targets CCKBR and is significant in suppressing gastric cancer cell growth. Maybe miR-148b would become a potential biomarker and therapeutic target against gastric cancer.
Thousands of genes have been well demonstrated to play important roles in cancer progression. As genes do not function in isolation, they can be grouped into “networks” based on their interactions. In this study, we discover a network regulating Claudin-4 in gastric cancer. We observe that Claudin-4 is up-regulated in gastric cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Claudin-4 reinforce proliferation, invasion, and EMT in AGS, HGC-27, and SGC-7901 cells, which could be reversed by miR-596 and miR-3620-3p. In addition, lncRNA-KRTAP5-AS1 and lncRNA-TUBB2A could act as competing endogenous RNAs to affect the function of Claudin-4. Our results suggest that non-coding RNAs play important roles in the regulatory network of Claudin-4. As such, non-coding RNAs should be considered as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets against gastric cancer.
In 1900, Adami speculated that a sequence of context-independent energetic and structural changes governed the reversion of differentiated cells to a proliferative, regenerative state. Accordingly, we show here that differentiated cells in diverse organs become proliferative via a shared program. Metaplasia-inducing injury caused both gastric chief and pancreatic acinar cells to decrease mTORC1 activity and massively upregulate lysosomes/autophagosomes; then increase damage associated metaplastic genes such as ; and finally reactivate mTORC1 and re-enter the cell cycle. Blocking mTORC1 permitted autophagy and metaplastic gene induction but blocked cell cycle re-entry at S-phase. In kidney and liver regeneration and in human gastric metaplasia, mTORC1 also correlated with proliferation. In lysosome-defective mice, both metaplasia-associated gene expression changes and mTORC1-mediated proliferation were deficient in pancreas and stomach. Our findings indicate differentiated cells become proliferative using a sequential program with intervening checkpoints: (i) differentiated cell structure degradation; (ii) metaplasia- or progenitor-associated gene induction; (iii) cell cycle re-entry. We propose this program, which we term "paligenosis", is a fundamental process, like apoptosis, available to differentiated cells to fuel regeneration following injury.
MicroRNAs(miRNA) are noncoding RNAs of about 19–23 nucleotides that are crucial for many biological processes. Members of the microRNA-148/152(miR-148/152) family, which include microRNA-148a(miR-148a), microRNA-148b(miR-148b), and microRNA-152(miR-152), are expressed differently in tumor and nontumor tissues and are involved in the genesis and development of disease. Furthermore, members of the miR-148/152 family are important in the growth and development of normal tissues. Members of the miR-148/152 family regulate target genes and are regulated by methylation of CPG islands. In this review, we report recent studies on the expression of members of the miR-148/152 family, methylation of CPG islands, and their target genes in different diseases, as well as in normal tissues.
Aberrant expression of miR-335 has been frequently reported in cancer studies, suggesting that there is a close correlation between miR-335 and cancer during its development, progression, metastasis and prognosis. The expression of miR-335 in gastric cancer and its effects are not known. Relative expression of miR-335 in 4 gastric cancer cell lines and in 70 gastric cancer tissues was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR compared with controls. Transwell cell migration and Matrigel invasion assay in vitro and metastasis formation assay in vivo were used to examine the effects of miR-335 expression on gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The effect of miR-335 expression on gastric cancer cell proliferation was estimated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Luciferase reporter assay and western blot were used to examine the potential target genes and related pathways. Gene silencing with small-interfering RNA was used to examine the effects of target genes on gastric cancer cell invasion. miR-335 was dramatically downregulated in gastric cancer cell lines than in the normal gastric cell line GES-1. Low expression of miR-335 was significantly associated with lymph-node metastasis, poor pT stage, poor pN stage and invasion of lymphatic vessels. Overexpression of miR-335 suppressed gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo, but has no significant effects on cell proliferation. Furthermore, miR-335 might suppress gastric cancer invasion and metastasis by targeting Bcl-w and specificity protein 1 (SP1). Taken together, our results provide evidence that miR-335 might function as a metastasis suppressor in gastric cancer by targeting SP1 directly and indirectly through the Bcl-w-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-Sp1 pathway. miR-335 showing altered expression at different stages of gastric cancer could be a target for gastric cancer therapies and could be further developed as a potential prognostic factor.
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