Aberrant expression of miR-335 has been frequently reported in cancer studies, suggesting that there is a close correlation between miR-335 and cancer during its development, progression, metastasis and prognosis. The expression of miR-335 in gastric cancer and its effects are not known. Relative expression of miR-335 in 4 gastric cancer cell lines and in 70 gastric cancer tissues was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR compared with controls. Transwell cell migration and Matrigel invasion assay in vitro and metastasis formation assay in vivo were used to examine the effects of miR-335 expression on gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The effect of miR-335 expression on gastric cancer cell proliferation was estimated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Luciferase reporter assay and western blot were used to examine the potential target genes and related pathways. Gene silencing with small-interfering RNA was used to examine the effects of target genes on gastric cancer cell invasion. miR-335 was dramatically downregulated in gastric cancer cell lines than in the normal gastric cell line GES-1. Low expression of miR-335 was significantly associated with lymph-node metastasis, poor pT stage, poor pN stage and invasion of lymphatic vessels. Overexpression of miR-335 suppressed gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo, but has no significant effects on cell proliferation. Furthermore, miR-335 might suppress gastric cancer invasion and metastasis by targeting Bcl-w and specificity protein 1 (SP1). Taken together, our results provide evidence that miR-335 might function as a metastasis suppressor in gastric cancer by targeting SP1 directly and indirectly through the Bcl-w-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-Sp1 pathway. miR-335 showing altered expression at different stages of gastric cancer could be a target for gastric cancer therapies and could be further developed as a potential prognostic factor.
Although transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from amnion (hAMSCs), bone marrow (hBMSCs) and adipose tissues (hADSCs) has been shown to aid in the repair of cutaneous wounds in mouse models, little information is available regarding the relative efficacy of MSCs from different sources. In this study, we compared their therapeutic potentials by transplanting equal numbers of hAMSCs, hBMSCs or hADSCs in a mouse model of cutaneous wounds. The results suggested that an hADSC injection has the most pronounced effect on wound closure. Histological evaluation showed enhanced re-epithelialization in the hADSC group compared with the hBMSC and hAMSC groups. Although there was a slight improvement in wound healing in the hAMSC and hBMSC groups, the differences between the groups were statistically insignificant. In a trans-well coculture model, wound healing migration and transwell migration assays showed that hADSCs were superior to hAMSCs and hBMSCs at promoting human dermal fibroblast (hDF) migration. However, there was no significant difference in fibroblast proliferation between the hAMSC, hBMSC and hADSC groups, as measured by WST assay. Our results also indicated that hDFs cocultured with hADSCs for 48 h significantly upregulated their mRNA expression of the cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor-β and increased the mRNA and protein levels of type I collagen. Collectively, these data suggest that hADSCs are a potential source of MSCs for therapeutic healing in cutaneous wounds in terms of efficacy, accessibility and availability.
Tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channels NaV1.8 and NaV1.9 in sensory neurons were known as key pain modulators. Comparing with the widely reported NaV1.8, roles of NaV1.9 on inflammatory pain are poorly studied by antisense-induced specific gene knockdown. Here, we used molecular, electrophysiological and behavioral methods to examine the effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS ODN) targeting NaV1.8 and NaV1.9 on inflammatory pain. Following complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) inflammation treatment, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9 in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) up-regulated mRNA and protein expressions and increased sodium current densities. Immunohistochemical data demonstrated that NaV1.8 mainly localized in medium and small-sized DRG neurons, whereas NaV1.9 only expressed in small-sized DRG neurons. Intrathecal (i.t.) delivery of AS ODN was used to down-regulate NaV1.8 or NaV1.9 expressions confirmed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Unexpectedly, behavioral tests showed that only NaV1.8 AS ODN, but not NaV1.9 AS ODN could reverse CFA-induced heat and mechanical hypersensitivity. Our data indicated that TTX-R sodium channels NaV1.8 and NaV1.9 in primary sensory neurons played distinct roles in CFA-induced inflammatory pain and suggested that antisense oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated blocking of key pain modulator might point toward a potential treatment strategy against certain types of inflammatory pain.
Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent, self-renewal mechanism that can degrade and recycle cellular components in eukaryotic cells to maintain the stability of the intracellular environment and the cells ability to cope with unfavorable environments. Numerous studies suggest that autophagy participates in regulating various cellular functions and is closely associated with the onset and progression of various diseases. Wound healing is a complex, multistep biological process that involves multiple cell types. Refractory wounds, which include diabetic skin ulcers, can seriously endanger human health. Previous studies have confirmed that autophagy plays an essential role in various phases of wound healing. Specifically, in the inflammatory phase, autophagy has an anti-infection effect and it negatively regulates the inflammatory response, which prevents excessive inflammation from causing tissue damage. In the proliferative phase, local hypoxia in the wound can induce autophagy, which plays a role in anti-apoptosis and anti-oxidative stress and promotes cell survival. Autophagy of vascular endothelial cells promotes wound angiogenesis and that of keratinocytes promotes their differentiation, proliferation and migration, which is conducive to the completion of wound re-epithelialisation. In the remodeling phase, autophagy of fibroblasts affects the formation of hypertrophic scars. Additionally, a refractory diabetic wound may be associated with increased levels of autophagy, and the regulation of mesenchymal stem cell autophagy may improve its application to wound healing. Therefore, understanding the relationship between autophagy and skin wound healing and exploring the molecular mechanism of autophagy regulation may provide novel strategies for the clinical treatment of wound healing.
Emerging evidence suggests that diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW MRI) could be useful for tumor detection with N and M staging of lung cancer in place of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT). DW MRI at 3.0 T and FDG PET/CT were performed before therapy in 113 patients with pulmonary nodules. Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax ) and Ki-67 scores were assessed. Quantitatively, specificity and accuracy of ADC (91.7 and 92.9%, respectively) were significantly higher than those of SUVmax (66.7 and 77.9% respectively, p < 0.05), although sensitivity was not significantly different between them (93.5 and 83.1%, p > 0.05). Qualitatively, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of DW MRI (96.1, 83.3 and 92.0%, respectively) were also not significantly different from that of FDG PET/CT (88.3, 83.3 and 86.7%, respectively, p > 0.05). Significant negative correlation was found between Ki-67 score and ADC (r = -0.66, p < 0.05), ADC and SUVmax (r = -0.37, p < 0.05), but not between Ki-67 score and SUVmax (r = -0.11, p > 0.05). In conclusion, quantitative and qualitative assessments for detection of malignant pulmonary tumors with DW MRI at 3.0 T are superior to those with FDG PET/CT. Furthermore, ADC could predict the malignancy of lung cancer.
MicroRNA (miR)‐451 is a cell metabolism‐related miRNA that can mediate cell energy‐consuming models by several targets. As miR‐451 can promote mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, and increased mTOR activity is related to increased differentiation of T‐helper 17 (Th17) cells, we sought to investigate whether miR‐451 can redistribute from cancer cells to infiltrated T cells and enhance the distribution of Th17 cells through mTOR. Real‐time PCR was used for detecting expression of miR‐451 in gastric cancer, tumor infiltrated T cells and exosomes, and distribution of Th17 was evaluated by both flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Immunofluorescence staining was used in monitoring the exosome‐enveloped miR‐451 from cancer cells to T cells with different treatments, and signaling pathway change was analyzed by western blot. miR‐451 decreased significantly in gastric cancer (GC) tissues but increased in infiltrated T cells and exosomes; tumor miR‐451 was negatively related to infiltrated T cells and exosome miR‐451. Exosome miR‐451 can not only serve as an indicator for poor prognosis of post‐operation GC patients but is also related to increased Th17 distribution in gastric cancer. miR‐451 can redistribute from cancer cells to T cells with low glucose treatment. Decreased 5′ AMP‐activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased mTOR activity was investigated in miR‐451 redistributed T cells and the Th17 polarized differentiation of these T cells were also increased. Exosome miR‐451 derived from tumor tissues can serve as an indicator for poor prognosis and redistribution of miR‐451 from cancer cells to infiltrated T cells in low glucose treatment can enhance Th17 differentiation by enhancing mTOR activity.
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