Ferroptosis is a novel mode of non-apoptotic cell death induced by build-up of toxic lipid peroxides (lipid-ROS) in an iron dependent manner. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) support tumor progression and drug resistance by secreting various bioactive substances, including exosomes. Yet, the role of CAFs in regulating lipid metabolism as well as ferroptosis of cancer cells is still unexplored and remains enigmatic.
Ferroptosis-related genes in gastric cancer (GC) were screened by using mass spectrum; exosomes were isolated by ultra-centrifugation and CAF secreted miRNAs were determined by RT-qPCR. Erastin was used to induce ferroptosis, and ferroptosis levels were evaluated by measuring lipid-ROS, cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential.
Here, we provide clinical evidence to show that arachidonate lipoxygenase 15 (ALOX15) is closely related with lipid-ROS production in gastric cancer, and that exosome-miR-522 serves as a potential inhibitor of ALOX15. By using primary stromal cells and cancer cells, we prove that exosome-miR-522 is mainly derived from CAFs in tumor microenvironment. Moreover, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) was found to mediate miR-522 packing into exosomes, and ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) stabilizes hnRNPA1 through de-ubiquitination. Importantly, cisplatin and paclitaxel promote miR-522 secretion from CAFs by activating USP7/hnRNPA1 axis, leading to ALOX15 suppression and decreased lipid-ROS accumulation in cancer cells, and ultimately result in decreased chemo-sensitivity.
The present study demonstrates that CAFs secrete exosomal miR-522 to inhibit ferroptosis in cancer cells by targeting ALOX15 and blocking lipid-ROS accumulation. The intercellular pathway, comprising USP7, hnRNPA1, exo-miR-522 and ALOX15, reveals new mechanism of acquired chemo-resistance in GC.
Thousands of genes have been well demonstrated to play important roles in cancer progression. As genes do not function in isolation, they can be grouped into “networks” based on their interactions. In this study, we discover a network regulating Claudin-4 in gastric cancer. We observe that Claudin-4 is up-regulated in gastric cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Claudin-4 reinforce proliferation, invasion, and EMT in AGS, HGC-27, and SGC-7901 cells, which could be reversed by miR-596 and miR-3620-3p. In addition, lncRNA-KRTAP5-AS1 and lncRNA-TUBB2A could act as competing endogenous RNAs to affect the function of Claudin-4. Our results suggest that non-coding RNAs play important roles in the regulatory network of Claudin-4. As such, non-coding RNAs should be considered as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets against gastric cancer.
To date, ionogel
sensors have aroused the extensive interest as
an alternative to hydrogel sensors, as they are promising materials
to solve the problems of easy drying and easy freezing. However, the
weak mechanical properties of ionogels have seriously hindered their
large-scale application. Herein, a robust physically linked double-network
ionogel (DN ionogel) was fabricated via interpenetrating a poly(hydroxyethyl
acrylate) network into an agarose network in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium
chloride. The DN ionogel possessed good mechanical properties, high
transparency, extreme temperature tolerance, and excellent self-adhesion.
The superior electromechanical properties render the DN ionogel as
a perfect candidate to be utilized as a strain sensor to monitor various
human activities. In addition, the DN ionogel exhibited reasonably
high sensitivity to temperature. Therefore, it is believed that this
high performance strain–temperature bimodal sensor offers a
promising prospect in flexible intelligent electronics.
RNA-binding protein (RBP) has a highly dynamic spatiotemporal regulation process and important biological functions. They are critical to maintain the transcriptome through post-transcriptionally controlling the processing and transportation of RNA, including regulating RNA splicing, polyadenylation, mRNA stability, mRNA localization, and translation. Alteration of each process will affect the RNA life cycle, produce abnormal protein phenotypes, and thus lead to the occurrence and development of tumors. Here, we summarize RBPs involved in tumor progression and the underlying molecular mechanisms whereby they are regulated and exert their effects. This analysis is an important step towards the comprehensive characterization of post-transcriptional gene regulation involved in tumor progression.
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