Oral cancer refers to the malignancies that occur in the oral cavity, lip and pharynx with 90% of oral cancers being squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). OSCC has the highest mortality ratio compared to other carcinomas. Although oral cavity is easily accessible, most oral cancers are detected at a later stage leading to lower survival rates. Early detection of OSCC is a key factor in improving the prognosis and survival rate of the patient. Rapid advancement in the field of diagnosis has enabled early diagnosis of many potentially malignant conditions even before its clinical manifestations. One such diagnostic modality that has gained much relevance in the field of molecular biology has been the discovery of salivary biomarkers (DNA, RNA and protein markers). These salivary biomarkers have been shown to play a non-invasive role in the diagnosis and surveillance of oral cancer. The direct contact between the saliva and the oral cancer lesions makes it a most sensitive and specific, screening method in diagnosis, staging and follow-up. This review aims to discuss the effectiveness and the potential of salivary biomarkers as a screening tool in OSCC.
Loricrin is a terminally differentiating structural protein comprising more than 70% of the cornified envelope. It contributes to the protective barrier function of the stratum corneum. In vivo, loricrin is expressed inall mammalian stratified epithelia with the highest levels of expression in humid tissues such as newborn epidermis, the epithelia of oral and anal mucosa, esophagus, foreskin, vagina and the epidermal parts of sweat ducts. Loricrin is not expressed in non keratinizing epithelia and its expression at these sites actually represents a defensive or protective mechanismof the body. An insight into this protein- “Loricrin” can shed light to its potential as a marker in the early stages of potentially malignant disorders like oral sub mucous fibrosis and leukoplakia. This compilation has been done by taking into account the existing literature, reviews and original studies on loricrin, a major component of the cornifiedcell envelope, its structure and the alterations that result due to its absence or presence of both the epidermis and the oral mucosa.
Background:The purpose of this study was to study the drug sensitivity pattern of Candida seen in HIV seropositive patients in Chennai, South India.Materials and Methods:36 oral rinse samples were collected from HIV seropositive individuals with (21 patients) and without (15 patients) clinical candidiasis. The type of Candidiasis, quantitative estimation, differentiation of candida species and antifungal susceptibility testing was done using different tests.Results:In the 21 patients with candidiasis, pseudomembranous type predominated with low CD4 counts and high colony forming units. Antifungal Drug sensitivity test revealed resistance to fluconazole which is attributed to long term exposure to the drug.Conclusion:The results of the study confirm the hypothesis that candidal species can be isolated in HIV positive patients with clinical candidiasis. In HIV infection there are fluconazole resistant candida species emerging mainly due to long term exposure to the drug.
Background and Objectives:Biometric authentication is an important process for the identification and verification of individuals for security purposes. There are many biometric systems that are currently in use and also being researched. Tongue print is a new biometric authentication tool that is unique and cannot be easily forged because no two tongue prints are similar. The present study aims to evaluate the common morphological features of the tongue and its variations in males and females. The usefulness of alginate impression and dental cast in obtaining the lingual impression was also evaluated.Materials and Methods:The study sample included twenty participants. The participants were subjected to visual examination following which digital photographs of the dorsal surface of the tongue were taken. Alginate impressions of the tongue were made, and casts were prepared using dental stone. The photographs and the casts were analyzed by two observers separately for the surface morphology including shape, presence or absence of fissures and its pattern of distribution. Three reference points were considered to determine the shape of the tongue.Results:The most common morphological feature on the dorsum of the tongue was the presence of central fissures. Multiple vertical fissures were observed in males whereas single vertical fissure was a common finding in females. The fissures were predominantly shallow in males and deep in females. The tongue was predominantly U shaped in males and females. V-shaped tongue was observed in 25% of females.Conclusion:Tongue prints are useful in biometric authentication. The methodology used in the study is simple, easy and can be adopted by dentists on a regular basis. However, large-scale studies are required to validate the results and also identify other features of the tongue that can be used in forensics and biometric authentication process.
Introduction: Solanum nigrum and Phyllanthus niruri are common herbs which are indigeneous to India. Solanum nigrum commonly called 'manathakkali Keerai' in Tamil, forms an indispensable part of South Indian diet. Phyllanthus niruri (keezhanelli in Tamil) is a widely used medicinal plant, the leaves of which have been used extensively in Ayurveda and native medicine to cure various liver ailments. The herbs Solanum nigrum and Phyllanthus niruri have been found to be effective against numerous enteropathogens in various in vitro studies. Aim:To assess and compare the antibacterial efficacy of the crude alcoholic extract of the leaves of Solanum nigrum and Phyllanthus niruri against five cariogenic organisms. Agar-Blood Agar (TSA-BA) and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar media. The antibacterial effect of the dried and powdered leaves of Solanum nigrum and Phyllanthus niruri was tested using agar well diffusion method. The zones of inhibition obtained after incubation were measured and tabulated. The antibacterial activity for the two herbs was compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Materials and Methods: Results:The antibacterial zones of inhibition obtained for the herb Solanum nigrum was in the range of 12.3-14.6 mm and ranged from 9.7-11.6 mm for the herb Phyllanthus niruri. When the zones of inhibition were compared for the herbs, Solanum nigrum showed significantly greater zones of inhibition compared to Phyllanthus niruri for the organisms Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mutans (p-value<0.05). Conclusion:The alcoholic extract of leaves of Solanum nigrum and Phyllanthus niruri showed significant antibacterial activity against cariogenic organisms, with Solanum nigrum being more anti-cariogenic than Phyllanthus niruri.
Tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features which differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication. Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and its superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated.
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