Cherubism is an inherited, autosomal dominant disorder that characteristically affects the jaws of children. The disease typically manifest as a bilateral swelling with associated submandibular lymph node enlargements and usually regresses as age advances. The disease is microscopically indistinguishable from other giant cell lesions and is essentially a clinical diagnosis. The association of cherubism with gingival fibromatosis, epilepsy, mental retardation, stunted growth, and hypertrichosis is referred as Ramon syndrome. We report a case of Ramon syndrome in an 8 year old girl.
Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite of various advancements in the treatment modalities, oral cancer mortalities are more, particularly in developing countries like India. This is mainly due to the delay in diagnosis of oral cancer. Delay in diagnosis greatly reduces prognosis of the treatment and also cause increased morbidity and mortality rates. Early diagnosis plays a key role in effective management of oral cancer. A rapid diagnostic technique can greatly aid in the early diagnosis of oral cancer. Now a day's many adjunctive oral cancer screening techniques are available for the early diagnosis of cancer. Among these, autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques are rapidly emerging as a powerful tool. These techniques are broadly discussed in this review.
Objective: To qualitative and quantitatively review published literature assessing the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methodology: Pubmed (MeSH), Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Willey Online Library, Cochrane, and Cross Reference were searched for studies assessing MDA levels in OSCC samples. Results: From the 1008 articles identified, 849 were excluded based on title and abstract screening due to duplication and irrelevance to the topic of interest. Full-text assessment of the remaining 159 articles led to the inclusion of only 46 articles that satisfied the selection criteria. Of these, only 26 studies had data compatible for quantitative analysis. The MDA levels in OSCC groups are significantly increased (p < 0.00001) in plasma, serum, and saliva samples in the majority of the studies evaluated. In contrast, MDA levels in OSCC tissue samples are significantly attenuated (p < 0.00001) compared to healthy controls, supported by fewer studies. Conclusions: The augmented MDA levels in plasma, serum, and saliva samples of the OSCC reflect the heightened oxidative stress level accurately. Further studies are required to understand the attenuated MDA levels in the tissue samples of OSCC. Correlation analysis between MDA levels with established clinicopathological prognostic markers could aid in formulating oxidative stress-based prognostication and treatment planning.
Every dentist should anticipate being confronted with a medical emergency (ME), and one should always be ready to treat the most catastrophic ones.
This study aimed to assess the knowledge of dental clinical students of Tamil Nadu in the ME understanding and management to create awareness toward patient care.
A total of 768 dental students, including final-year students and residents from different colleges, took part in the questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. The selection of study participants was by the convenience sampling method. The questionnaire contained thirty closed multiple-choice questions to assess their knowledge of MEs. Microsoft Office Excel software was used for compiling the answers. The descriptive analysis of the data is exhibited in graphs.
The majority of participants were mindful of the vital signs; only 55% of the participants know the importance of checking their respiration rate. The knowledge of identifying MEs such as anaphylaxis was 91%, and only 27%–37% of the respondents knew to identify angina, transient ischemia, and lidocaine toxicity. Approximately 15%–40% of the respondents only knew the management of angina, cardiac arrest, hyperventilation, respiratory obstruction, and seizure. Only 10% agreed that the best office emergency kit should be prepared by themselves. Roughly 78% of the respondents were conscious of the patient's referral whenever necessary and aware of state dental acts.
This study reflects a significant need for training in executing ME among dental students who are to transmute into future dental professionals.
The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) often affects elderly aged adults, who had long-term tobacco exposure. In the recent past decade, there is an increasing incidence of OSCC in younger individuals, who had less tobacco association.
The aim of this study is to examine the risk factors and to assess and compare the clinicopathological features and prognosis of OSCC in young patients with the older group patients.
Materials and Methods:
We included studies that addressed the OSCC involving young patients during the period between 2014 and 2019. Initially, we found 679 articles; after refined evaluation, 92 works had their titles matching to the present work. After extraction of case reports, reviews, and studies with un-matched objectives or inadequate data, we have chosen only 24 presentations matching to the abstract. The statistical analysis performed by Chi-square tests using SPSS 20.0 version for windows.
Of the total OSCC, 10% of patients belonged to the younger age group, and 90% were the older aged group. Both the groups showed male gender predominance and tongue as the predominant site of involvement. The younger patients tend to have significantly reduced tobacco exposure. The highly reported tumors were advanced staged and moderately differentiated tumors in both groups. There was a statistically evident high recurrence reported in the younger group. The overall survival seems to be similar for both groups.
The identification of the potential risk factors, along with unique molecular mechanisms, and biological behavior of the disease is mandatory to control the incidence of OSCC in young adults.
Objective This study aims to evaluate the oxidative stress marker Malondialdehyde (MDA) in oral submucous fibrosis with available literature.
Materials and Methods We conducted a literature search electronically in PubMed (MeSH), Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar using specific keywords.
Results A systematic search in PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar identified 334 articles. Of these, four were duplicate reports, and three were animal studies. After reading the abstracts of the collected articles, 288 articles were excluded for the following reasons: low quality, not relevant to the research question, or did not meet the inclusion criteria. The remaining 46 articles were chosen for full-text assessment. Finally, the present qualitative synthesis included 23 articles for evaluation. The selected studies in MDA analysis in a random-effects model showed higher heterogeneity (Q = 477.636, p < 0.001, I2 = 95.394%). The standard difference in mean MDA concentration between oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and healthy subjects was estimated as 2.73 nmol/mL (95% confidence interval: 2.08–3.38).
Conclusion The selected studies showed significantly higher MDA levels in various biological samples of patients with OSMF. Therefore, further studies are needed to estimate oxidative stress levels by using different biomarkers in OSMF to direct future therapy.
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