Background: Interproximal contact areas in primary teeth are known to be broader, flatter, and situated more gingivally than in permanent teeth. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the different types of intact interproximal contact areas in primary teeth using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) among children.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed with 74 contacts from 28 existing CBCT images of children aged between 3 and 14 years, obtained from the Indian Dental Education Academy, Chennai, India. The shape of the contact area was observed at three levels, the coronal, middle, and apical thirds, in three different sections of CBCT. Prevalence of the types of contact areas was expressed in the form of numbers and percentages.
Results: The weighted Cohen’s kappa values for inter-examiner reliability was 0.893 at baseline. Results exhibited four different types of contact areas between the primary molars, namely, O type, X type, I type, and S type, based on the shapes observed; hence, the proposed classification is referred to as OXIS. The most common pattern seen was I (66.2%), followed by X (21.6%), O (9.4%) and the least common was S (2.7%).
Conclusion: The three-dimensional evaluation of intact interproximal contact areas between primary molars are of four types, O,X, I and S.
Cementoblastoma is a benign true neoplasm which forms a mass of cementum or cementum-like tissue on the root surface of the tooth. As a maxillofacial practitioner, it is essential to consider cementoblastoma as one of the differential diagnosis, although rare, while considering maxillary swellings. The treatment remains fairly conservative, with an excellent prognosis.
Objectives: To characterize the sonographic features of the buccal mucosa in patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Methods: Three groups (controls with areca-related habits, controls without areca-related habits and clinically diagnosed OSF cases), each comprising 30 subjects, were included in the study. After a thorough clinical examination, transcutaneous B-mode ultrasonography was performed with a multifrequency linear transducer (5-10 MHz) for anterior and posterior buccal mucosa bilaterally. Both clinical and ultrasound findings were recorded by three independent observers. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference post-hoc tests were used for statistical comparisons between groups and Pearson x 2 tests to compare the proportions. Kappa statistics was used to determine the interobserver agreement. Results: The submucosa that appeared hypoechoic in the control groups had significantly increased echogenicity in the case group (hypo-to isoechoic in 46.7% and isoechoic in 53.3%). The differentiation between the submucosa and the muscle layer appeared distinct in the control groups while it was not clear in the case group (indistinct in 50% and completely lost in 50%). The number of sites found positive on the ultrasound was significantly greater than the number of clinically positive sites. There was a very good interobserver consistency in clinical and ultrasound findings. Conclusions: Ultrasonography of the buccal mucosa demonstrates increased submucosal echogenicity and reduced echo differentiation between submucosa and muscle layer in OSF cases. Hence, it can be used as a non-invasive imaging modality to assess the disease extent and severity across the entire buccal mucosa to supplement clinical evaluation.
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