BackgroundCardiovascular diseases affect people worldwide. Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) have an up to sixteen-time greater risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases.ObjectiveTo evaluate the effects of aerobic and resistance exercises on blood pressure and hemodynamic variables of young individuals with DS.MethodsA total of 29 young individuals with DS participated in the study. They were divided into two groups: aerobic training (AT) (n = 14), and resistance training (TR) (n = 15). Their mean age was 15.7 ± 2.82 years. The training program lasted 12 weeks, and had a frequency of three times a week for AT and twice a week for RT. AT was performed in treadmill/ bicycle ergometer, at an intensity between 50%-70% of the HR reserve. RT comprised nine exercises with three sets of 12 repetition-maximum. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and hemodynamic variables were assessed beat-to-beat using the Finometer device before/after the training program. Descriptive analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk test to check the normality of data, and the two-way ANOVA for repeated measures were used to compare pre- and post-training variables. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated to correlate hemodynamic variables. The SPSS version 18.0 was used with the significance level set at p < 0.05.ResultsAfter twelve weeks of aerobic and/or resistance training, significant reductions in variables SBP, DBP and MBP were observed.ConclusionThis study suggests a chronic hypotensive effect of moderate aerobic and resistance exercises on young individuals with DS.
People with Down syndrome (DS) may present changes in the lipid profile. The objective of this research was to collect data from the literature on the lipid profile and the effect of exercise on this variable of people with DS. Five databases were searched (MedLine, Lilacs, EBSCO Host, Web of Science and PsycInfo) using terms related to the research objectives. At the end of the searches, 15 articles were included in the review. Five studies verified changes in the lipid profile and high incidence of dyslipidemias, with the most frequent changes being low HDL and elevated triglycerides. Two studies investigated the effect of intervention with exercise and counseling for health-friendly practices and found improvement mainly in HDL after the intervention period. Thus, the lipid profile should be investigated in people with DS and the practice of physical exercises can be used to control these variables.
O objetivo do estudo foi verificar o efeito do treinamento resistido sobre a força muscular de jovens com Síndrome de Down (SD). Participaram 25 jovens SD, divididos em: Grupo controle (GC n=10) e Grupo treinamento resistido (GTR n=15). O treinamento teve duração de 12 semanas para o GTR, duas sessões semanais. Foram realizados antes e após o programa testes de 1-RM de remada alta e de cadeira extensora e teste de preensão manual. Foi feita estatística descritiva, comparações intra e entre grupos (teste t-Student) e correlação de Spearman. Os jovens apresentaram indicadores antropométricos preocupantes para uma boa saúde. O treinamento resistido provocou efeitos positivos na força muscular, sendo uma alternativa segura e benéfica para jovens com SD.
The objective of this work is to describe and compare the behavior of cortisol in official wheelchair basketball matches according to the type of disability. This is a cross-sectional study in which 34 elite wheelchair basketball athletes were divided into three groups, based on disability (spinal cord injury, poliomyelitis, and amputation). Cortisol concentration (baseline, pre-, and post-game) and heart rate were analyzed in five official games. Heart rate data were stratified according to the Edwards method. Significant differences were observed in pre- and post-cortisol concentrations only for the amputated group. No significant correlations were found between cortisol variation and intensity ranges. Athletes with neurological damage were not responsive to wheelchair basketball in relation to salivary cortisol concentrations. The game intensity cannot be verified by the biomarker cortisol for all types of disabilities. It is necessary to pay attention to the energy availability for athletes with neurological injuries during the game and post-game recovery.
RESUMOO objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a concentração de gordura corporal e o nível de atividade física de mulheres pós-menopausa. Participaram da amostra 20 mulheres pós-menopausa com idade média de 54,6 (± 3,05) anos. Foi aplicado o IPAQ para avaliar o nível de prática de atividade física e um questionário de percepções corporais após a menopausa. Foi feita uma análise com bioimpedância Biodynamics modelo 310, para avaliar o percentual de gordura e medida a circunferência abdominal, peso e estatura das participantes. O tempo médio de menopausa foi de 67 (± 47,16) meses. Mulheres ativas tiveram melhores resultados de IMC, Circunferência Abdominal e Percentual de gordura corporal. 80% das participantes foram classificadas como suficientemente ativas. Assume-se então que a prática de atividade física e um estilo de vida saudável são cruciais para a manutenção da saúde, e a prevenção de doenças advindas do envelhecimento em mulheres pós-menopausa.Palavras-Chave: Menopausa; Composição corporal; Atividade física. BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ANALISYS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate body fat concentration and physical activity in postmenopausal women. The sample included by 20 postmenopausal women in mean age of 54,6 ± 3,05 years. The IPAQ was applied to evaluate physical activity level. A postmenopausal body perception quastionnaire was also applied. An analysis with bioimpedance Biodynamics model 310 was performed to evaluate the body fat percentage. The participants' waist circunference, body mass and height were measured. Results showed a mean menopause duration of 67 (± 47,16) months. Active women had better results of BMI, Waist Circunference and body fat percentage. 80% of participants were rate as sufficiently active. Based on this data, it is conclued that a lot of attention is needed in this population's lifestyle. Those results corroborate with the idea that physical activity and healthy lifestyle are crucial to health maintenance, and aging-related desease prevention in postmenopausal women.
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to prematurely reach the skeletal maturation period. In addition, young people with this condition have poor physical fitness and few opportunities to practice physical activity when compared to those without disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the skeletal maturation of young people with Down syndrome and its influence on the behavior of physical fitness related to health, after aerobic and resistance training programs. Forty people with DS, with an average age of 15.4 (± 2.6) years, were divided into three groups for a 12 weeks intervention program, AT - aerobic training group (3 times/week; 50 minutes/session), RT - resistance training group (twice/week ; 50 minutes/session) and CG - control group, 9 participants. Determination of skeletal age (EA) was performed using the Greulich-Pyle method. Anthropometric variables, muscle strength and peak VO2 were measured pre and post intervention. It was found that skeletal maturation influenced the effects of training, only being significant for body weight and strength in the upright row variables. In addition, the muscle strength of upper and lower limbs increased significantly after 12 weeks of aerobic or resistance training. Then, we can conclude that the effects of physical training on physical fitness of young people with Down syndrome appear to improve as the bone age increases.
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