A recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease also called Coronavirus disease 2019 in China, has rapidly spread to other countries of the world. The medical and scientific communities are working tirelessly to produce a vaccine due to the lethal nature of this virus. COVID-19 is a novel virus that requires immediate emergency therapy, thereby leading to massive fear of infection, social problems in the community, and an increase in the number of infected people. Therefore, scientists and researchers need to determine the epidemiological cases of the virus, such as its mode of transmission, effective preventive measures, and the nature of the life cycle. In addition, there need to be current literature advances in diagnostic development such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), computed tomography san (CT-Scan), ELISA as well as clinical researches on modern and herbal drugs for the treatment of infected patients. This treatment technique is classified from antiviral drugs such as entry, replication, nucleosides, nucleotides, and protease inhibitors, along with the use of heterocyclic drugs, monoclonal antibodies therapy, vaccine development and herbal formulations that have been pre-clinically tested in vitro and molecular docking. Chemical drug molecules with prospective applications in the treatment of COVID-19 have been included in this review.
Off-label drugs can be interpreted as drugs that are used not in accordance with drug information, distribution permits and sales licenses from the Marketing Authorization (MA) related to indications, age, dosage, route of administration and contraindications. The use of off-label drugs in children occurs because of incomplete data on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and side effect of a drug. It is because clinical research in children is quite difficult and not in accordance with research ethics and morals, so it has the potential to cause errors in treatment and unwanted drug reactions. This study aims to describe the use of off-label drugs in hospitalized pediatric patients at RSUD of Dr. M.M Dunda Limboto, Gorontalo District, Gorontalo Province. This is an obsevational study using cross sectional design and retrospective data collection. The sampling technique applies a purposive sampling technique with a total of 155 patiens who meet the inclusion criteria during the January-June 2020 period. The finding shows that from 155 patient medical records, there are 172 (16,51%) off-label drug used with a total of 1042 drugs. The off-label drugs used in the indication category are 64,53%, the off-label drugs used in dose category are 17,44%, the off-label drugs used in age category are 14,53%, the off-label drugs used in route of administration category are 3,49% and the off-label drugs used in contraindictions category are not found. The are the most off-label drugs used in each category, including domperidone (off-label in indications and dose), rhinofed (off-label in age) and salbutamol (off-label in route of administration).
Low Quality Assurance in Pharmacy Award Ipilo Gorontalo include pharmaceutical, security, procurement, storage, and distribution or drug delivery, drug management, on a prescription drug services, drug information services, as well as drug development, medicinal materials and traditional medicine. The impact of the implementation of activities in the pharmacy pharmacy services Anugerah Ipilo errors may occur treatment (medication errors) in the service process. Quality Assurance (QA) is one dimension that is used in the measurement of quality of service, where the application of QA in pharmacies Ipilo Award aims to provide quality assurance of pharmaceutical products and the quality of services provided to patients. This research is descriptive, the source of primary data obtained from the questionnaires with QA standard indicator framework on pharmaceutical services in pharmacies Anugerah Ipilo. The assessment results then classified based on criteria appropriate, relatively appropriate and not appropriate. The results showed that the Quality Assurance (Quality Assurance) on the quality of the equipment and the safety assurance of Pharmaceutical Services in Pharmacy Award Ipilo there are seven questions (70%) had a very good criteria, three questions (30%) had a good criterion. Quality Assurance (Quality Assurance) on the Process of Pharmaceutical Services in Pharmacy Award Ipilo there are 4 questions (40%) had a very good criteria, one question (10%) had a pretty good and 5 questions (50%) had less good. Pharmacies merely focused on the administration and management of medication alone is not the overall pharmacy services, in addition because the pharmacy Anugerah Ipilo prefer the function of the economy (business) rather than its social function, which pharmacies are required to gain / profit in business.
Quality refers to compliance with predetermined standards or by requirements. The minimum service standard (MSS) in the health sector at the hospital is crucial because it is a measure of the hospital's performance of health services. This study was intended to describe the service quality in the pharmacy installation of Toto Hospital in Kabila based on four indicators of minimum pharmacy service standards, viz. drug waiting time for treatment completion, the absence of drug administration errors, customer satisfaction, and prescription writing according to the formulary. This descriptive cross-sectional research involved 154 outpatients and inpatients for the category of prescription writing according to the formulary and 154 outpatients for other categories as respondents as samples. Besides, the instruments were a customer satisfaction questionnaire and observation sheet. The results showed that the indicators of waiting time were nine minutes seven seconds and 18 minutes six seconds for concocted drug treatment; there was no error in administering drugs by 100%; customer satisfaction was 86.9%, and; prescription writing according to the formulary was 92.7%. . It was concluded that the Pharmacy Installation of Toto Hospital had not met the specified Minimum Service Standards (MSS).
Hipertensi merupakan penyakit tidak menular yang ditandai dengan terjadinya peningkatan tekanan darah sistolik dan diastolik yang lebih dari 140 mmHg dan 90 mmHg. Penelitian farmakoekonomi merupakan proses identifikasi, pengukuran dan perbandingan biaya, akibat dan keuntungan suatu program pelayanan dan terapi, serta menentukan pilihan mana yang memberikan outcomes kesehatan terbaik untuk sumber yang diinvestasikan. Analisis yang digunakan adalah Analisis Efektivitas Biaya untuk menentukan rekomendasi terapi terbaik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penggunaan antihipertensi Amlodipin dibandingkan Candesartan, biaya terapi yang dikeluarkan pasien, dan antihipertensi yang paling efektiv biaya. Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif analitik secara retrospektif, subyek penelitian adalah pasien hipertensi yang menggunakan terapi Amlodipin dan Candesartan sebanyak 46 pasien yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi. Data diolah menggunakan ACER dan ICER. Hasil Penelitian menunjukkan jumlah pasien hipertensi lebih banyak diderita oleh perempuan yaitu 27 orang dengan persentase 58,7%, berdasarkan usia pada kelompok 51-60 tahun pada perempuan yaitu 14 orang dengan persentase 51,9%. Efektivitas pengobatan Amlodipin 86,36%, dan Candesartan 75%. Berdasarkan nilai ACER yang paling cost effective adalah Candesartan dengan nilai ACER sebesar Rp 2.113,58 per % efektivitas.
An emergency kit is life-saving drug storage that is immediately required for helping patients with a sudden decline in health status. Therefore, the management of an emergency kit should be taken into concern. This qualitative descriptive research is devoted to determining the management of the emergency kit (trolley) from the aspects of recording and reporting, arrangement, human resources, facilities, and infrastructure in Regional Public Hospital RSUD Hasri Ainun Habibie in 2019. The obtained data were analyzed based on the Regulation of the Minister of Health Number 72 of 2016 Concerning Standards of Pharmaceutical Services in Hospitals and the Standard Operating Procedures of the hospital mentioned earlier. Further, this study involved pharmacy staff as the responsible person of the Trolley and Emergency Trolley themselves as the sample. The results indicate that the wards, in terms of the recording and reporting processes, have not reached good management. It is revealed that out of seven wards that provide emergency trolley, 100% of them have not fulfilled the sub-variable on recording the taking of emergency stocks in the aspect of recording and reporting; 100% have not satisfied the sub-variable on using the key of disposable trolley in the aspect of arrangement; in the aspect of human resources, 100% and 50% have not met the sub-variables on the signing of the handover letter and trolley locking, respectively, and 25% have done the gradual stocks checking; in the aspect of facilities and infrastructure, 100% have not fulfilled the sub-variable on disposable lock document.
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) is an infectioan that commonly occurs in human of any age however, children and infants are the most vulnerable and most exposed to ARI. The study aims to identify the utilization of drug therapy in patients with ARI, specifically those infants and children patients at Puskesmas Kota Tengah in 2019. it employs a descriptive research design where the obtained data are secondary data that are collected retrospectively besides, the data used in this study are medical prescription documents, including the patient’s name, age, type of drug used, and drug use patternThe finding discloses that drug therapy administered to 116 infants and children patients who suffer from ARI at Puskesmas Kota Tengah in 2019 reveals that the most widely used therapy is the expectorant group(Gliceryl Guaicolate) as many as 61 (62,2%), Antihistamine group (Chlorpheniramine maleate) with a frequency of 75 times (64,1%), Vitamin B Complex with a frequency of 69 times (55,2%), Antibiotik group (Amoxicillin) with a frequency 47 times (41%), Analgesic and Antipyretic group (Paracetamol) is the most widely prescribed with a prescription frequency of 65 times (55,7%). In addition, the parameter of right drug obtains frequency of 22 times with 94 times with the percentage of (81,0%) and incorrect drug obtains a frequncy of 22 times with a percentage of (19,0%), the parameter of right dose for 83 times with a percentage of (71,6%), and incorrect dose for 33 times with a percentage of (28,4%). At the same time, the right drug use pattern parameter involves the right dose, and the right drug obtains a frequency of 94 times with a percentage 0f 8 (81,0%) while the incorrect drug use pattern obtains a frequency 0f 22 times with a percentage 0f (19,0%)
Kondisi di lapangan menunjukkan bahwa selama ini pemanfaatan dan pengelolaan sumberdaya perdesaan sebagian besar dilakukan oleh laki-laki, mulai dari kegiatan di bidang pertanian, peternakan, industri kecil dan menengah, koperasi, dan kegiatan lain yang sifatnya kegiatan ekonomi. Padahal perempuan sebagai anggota masyarakat juga mempunyai hak untuk ikut serta dalam pemanfaatan dan pengelolaan sumberdaya perdesaan, meskipun kemungkinan peran perempuan tidak sebesar peran laki-laki. Oleh karena itu diperlukan adanya berbagai program yang dapat dilakukan perempuan dalam rangka peningkatan kesejahteraan keluarga dengan memanfaatkan dan mengelola lingkungan sekitarnya. Salah satu program yang dapat dilaksanakan oleh perempuan dalam upaya peningkatan kesejahteraan industri rumah tangga, khususnya di bidang pangan adalah program penanaman dan pemanfaatan Tanaman Obat Keluarga (TOGA).Tujuan dari pengabdian ini adalah meningkatkan pendapatan masyarakat dimasa pandemi covid 19 sekaligus menyediakan obat yang lebih murah dan efek samping yang lebih ringan. Metode yang digunakan adalah ceramah dan praktik atau demonstrasi. Sehingga masyarakat dapat mempraktikkan secara langsung dan menerapkan dalam rumah tangga. Dalam pelaksanaannya disampaikan metode pengolahan tanaman TOGA sehingga menjadi minuman immunostimulan yang menyehatkan maupun bagaimana cara menanamnya. Disamping itu juga bagaimana cara mengelola keuangan hasil penjualan hasil pengelohan tanaman TOGA tersebut. Bagaimana strategi pemasarannya kepada masyarakat atau konsumen yang membutuhkan sehingga bisa menghasilkan keuntungan.
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