The overall most parsimonious hypothesis of relationships based on 200 characters indicates that the Alestidae is the closest relative of Chalceus, a genus previously assigned to the Neotropical Characidae. Chalceus is shifted into the Alestidae, which becomes the only trans‐Atlantic family level group within the Characiformes. Various previously proposed suprageneric assemblages within the Alestidae (e.g. Petersiini) failed to delimit monophyletic groups under the intrafamilial phylogenetic analysis. The evaluation of fossil alestids within the context of the phylogeny indicates that the ancestors of Alestes, Arnoldichthys, Brycinus, Bryconaethiops and Hydrocynus evolved prior to the early Eocene (Cuisian of Upper Ypresian), 49–54.8 million years ago, with the fossil Alestoides most closely related to Alestes. The phylogenetic information further indicates a minimum age of 90–112 million years for the Alestidae. Contrary to previous hypotheses, the fossil African Sindacharax was found to be most similar to the clade including the alestid genus Bryconaethiops rather than most closely related to the South American subfamily Serrasalminae. Evaluation of the fossil Mahengecharax carrolli fails to support its hypothesized placement as the sister group to all Recent members of the Alestidae. Two separate episodes of miniaturization and one episode of gigantism occurred within the evolution of the Alestidae. © 2005 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2005, 145, 1−144. No claim to original US government works.
The Northeastern Mata Atlântica freshwater ecoregion (NMAF) includes part of the eastern Brazilian coastal drainages, has high level of fish endemism and great biogeographic significance. A taxonomic inventory of freshwater fishes from 25 drainages of the NMAF ecoregion and a biogeographic analysis using the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) method were carried out. A total of 192 native species was listed. The PAE method was applied to 24 basins and 37 species, resulting in five equally parsimonious area diagrams. The strict consensus diagram indicates the existence of two main groups of basins throughout the NMAF ecoregion. These groups were denominated: North Group and Central-South Group. The CentralSouth Group shows a basal polytomy composed by two Groups (Central Group and South Group) plus the rio Itapemirim basin. The North Group is composed by eight drainages from the rio Sergipe to the rio Paraguaçu, the Central Group by five drainages from the rio Cachoeira to the rio Jequitinhonha, and the South Group by nine drainages from the rio Buranhém to the rio Doce. Comments about the species distribution and the fish fauna shared with adjacent ecoregions are provided. We also present a comparison of the hypothesis of river relationships proposed herein with published phylogenetic hypotheses that include taxa relevant to this study.A ecorregião Mata Atlântica Nordeste (NMAF) inclui parte das drenagens costeiras do leste do Brasil, tem alto grau de endemismo de peixes e grande significado biogeográfico. Um levantamento taxonômico da ictiofauna de água doce de 25 drenagens da ecorregião NMAF e uma análise biogeográfica utilizando o método de Análise de Parcimônia de Endemismo (PAE) foram realizados. Um total de 192 espécies nativas foi listado. O método PAE foi aplicado a 24 bacias e 37 espécies, resultando em cinco diagramas de áreas igualmente parcimoniosos. O diagrama de consenso estrito indica a existência de dois grupos de bacias principais ao longo da ecorregião NMAF. Estes grupos foram denominados: Grupo Norte e Grupo Centro-Sul. O Grupo Centro-Sul apresenta uma politomia basal composta por dois grupos (Grupo Centro e Grupo Sul) mais a bacia do rio Itapemirim. O Grupo Norte é formado por oito drenagens entre o rio Sergipe e o rio Paraguaçu, o Grupo Centro por cinco drenagens entre o rio Cachoeira e o rio Jequitinhonha e o Grupo Sul por nove drenagens entre o rio Buranhém e rio Doce. Comentários sobre a distribuição das espécies e a fauna compartilhada com ecorregiões adjacentes são fornecidos. Apresentamos também uma comparação da hipótese de relação aqui obtida com filogenias publicadas para alguns táxons relevantes ao presente estudo.
Species of the loricariid genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 from rio Ribeira de Iguape drainage (São Paulo and Paraná States, Brazil) are reviewed. Four species were found in the area: H. agna (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1907), H. ancistroides (Ihering, 1911), H. interruptus (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1918), and a new species H. tapijara. Hypostomus tapijara is distinguished from its congeners inhabiting rio Ribeira de Iguape basin by the presence of well defined large, dark, and roundish spots somewhat homogeneously distributed over body and fins, and by its relatively broad dorsal fin (interradial membranes apparently wider than in examined congeners from coastal Brazilian drainages). A key, descriptions and illustrations are provided for all species.
Abstract:The Recôncavo Sul basin is a portion of the coastal river drainages of Eastern Brazil almost entirely included in the "Baixo Sul" region of Bahia State, and is limited at its northern and northwestern borders by the rio Paraguaçu basin and at its southern and southwestern borders by the rio de Contas basin. In this study a total of 41 strictly freshwater fish species were recorded, belonging to 28 genera, 12 families, and six orders (18 Characiformes, 13 Siluriformes, five Perciformes, two Cyprinodontiformes, two Gymnotiformes, and one Synbranchiformes). Ten possibly undescribed, four endemic, and four introduced species were recorded in the area of study. One species occurring in the area is considered threatened with extinction. An identification key to the species known for the Recôncavo Sul is provided, as well as comments about the taxonomy and distribution of some species. Due to its comparatively high diversity and relatively pristine condition the rio das Almas drainage is suggested as a key area for conservation. Resumo: A bacia do Recôncavo Sul faz parte das drenagens costeiras do Leste do Brasil, está quase inteiramente incluída na região do Baixo Sul do Estado da Bahia, é limitada ao norte e noroeste pela bacia do rio Paraguaçu e ao sul e sudoeste pelo rio de Contas. No presente estudo, um total de 41 espécies de peixes estritamente de água doce foi registrado, pertencentes a 28 gêneros, 12 famílias e seis ordens (18 Characiformes, 13 Siluriformes, cinco Perciformes, duas Cyprinodontiformes, duas Gymnotiformes e uma Synbranchiformes). Foram encontradas dez espécies possivelmente ainda não descritas, quatro espécies endêmicas e quatro introduzidas na área de estudo. Uma espécie presente na área está ameaçada de extinção. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies conhecidas para o Recôncavo Sul é apresentada, assim como comentários sobre a taxonomia e distribuição de algumas espécies. Devido à diversidade comparativamente alta e condições ambientais relativamente preservadas, a bacia do rio das Almas é indicada como uma área chave para conservação. Palavras-chave: inventário, peixes de água doce, Nordeste do Brasil, bacia do Leste, Baixo Sul.
Myxiops aphos, new genus and species, is described from a river in the eastern portion of Bahia State, Brazil. Myxiops is distinguished from all other characid genera by the combination of the following features: infraorbitals fused in a unique fashion, resulting always in less than six autogenous bones; a single tooth row in the premaxilla; presence of somewhat pedunculate teeth, expanded and compressed distally, with cusps similar in shape and perfectly aligned along distal margin; ventral margin of toothed portion of maxillary curved towards ventral margin of premaxilla and maxillary teeth forming a continuous series with premaxillary teeth; margins of pre-and postzygapophyses with projections anteriorly and posteriorly directed; accumulation of epithelial cells forming globular structures distributed over head and scales; and base of anal fin without scales covering basal portion of unbranched and anterior branched rays. The presence of these features in other characids is discussed.Myxiops aphos, novo gênero e espécie, é descrita de um rio do leste do Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Myxiops distingue-se de todos os outros gêneros de caracídeos pela seguinte combinação de caracteres: exclusivo modo de fusão dos infraorbitais, resultando em menos de seis ossos autógenos; uma única série de dentes no pré-maxilar; presença de dentes comprimidos com cúspides similares em tamanho e alinhadas ao longo da margem distal dos dentes; margem ventral da porção com dentes do maxilar arqueando-se em direção à margem ventral do pré-maxilar e dentes do maxilar formando um eixo contínuo com os dentes do pré-maxilar; margens das pré-e pós-zigapófises com projeções anterior e posteriormente direcionadas; acúmulo de células epiteliais formando estruturas globulares distribuídas sobre a cabeça e escamas; e base da nadadeira anal sem escamas. A presença destas características em outros caracídeos é discutida.
Astyanax brucutu is described from the rio Pratinha, rio Paraguaçu basin, Bahia, Brazil. The new species is promptly distinguished from other characids by having four, rarely three, robust, rounded, and usualy tricuspid teeth on inner premaxillary series and similar teeth on dentary. The species is furthermore characterized by a series of unusual character states in the Characidae, including head blunt in lateral and dorsal views, longitudinal foreshortening of lower jaw, ventral margin of third infraorbital distinctly separated from horizontal limb of preopercle, leaving a broad area without superficial bones, mesethmoid anteroventrally expanded, and adductor mandibulae and primordial ligament remarkably developed. Analysis of gut contents of adults revealed the almost exclusive presence of crushed shells of tiny gastropods of the family Hydrobiidae. The robust anatomy of jaws, teeth, muscles and associated ligaments are likely adaptations to durophagy, a feeding strategy unusual among characids. Astyanax brucutu is known only from its type locality, an approximately 670 m long, transparent and isolated perennial epigean watercourse surrounded by subterranean or intermittent rivers. The distinctive combination of environmental features characterizing the area of occurrence of the new species is not observed elsewhere in the basin or adjacent basins. A series of severe anthropogenic impacts, associated with the restricted geographic range of the species, implies that A. brucutu should be regarded as Critically Endangered (CR) according to IUCN Red List Criteria.
The Neotropical characid fishes of the genus Chalceus Cuvier, 1817, are reviewed. In total, five species are recognized (including three new species). Chalceus epakros sp. nov. is the most widespread geographically, occurring in many rivers of the Amazon basin, the Río Orinoco and in the Essequibo River drainage in Guyana. Chalceus guaporensis sp. nov. is restricted to the upper Rio Madeira, Rio Guaporé and Río Madre de Dios, of Brazil, Bolivia and Peru, respectively. Chalceus spilogyros sp. nov. occurs only in the Rio Trombetas, lower Rio Tapajós and lower Rio Madeira drainages. Chalceus macrolepidotus Cuvier occurs in the Rio Negro drainage, middle and lower Río Orinoco basin and in the rivers of the Atlantic slopes of the Guianas, and Chalceus erythrurus Cope in the Rio Amazonas and Rio Solimões to Río Ucayali drainage in Peru. Chalceus ararapeera Cuvier & Valenciennes and Creagrutus pellegrini Puyo are considered synonyms of C. macrolepidotus, and Pellegrinina heterolepis Fowler is placed into the synonymy of C. erythrurus. Characters pertaining to the monophyly of Chalceus are discussed and a key to species is presented. © 2004 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2004, 140, 103−135.
Analysis of morphometric and meristic data from specimens obtained from various river basins along the distribution of Nematocharax venustus revealed intraspecific variation among geographically isolated populations. A comparative analysis of these data with data from the original description of N. costai, in addition to data obtained from the holotype and topotypes of the species, showed broad overlap and absence of morphological features supporting the recognition of two species within Nematocharax. Characters previously used to distinguish N. costai from N. venustus, such as presence of hooks or spinules on dorsal and pelvic fins, number of hooks on anal-fin rays, occurrence of a pink horizontal mark on the caudal peduncle, number of supraneurals, and coloration of the pelvic-fin filament, are not useful to distinguish the two putative species. Thus, N. costai is considered herein as a junior synonym of N. venustus. Presence of a complete lateral line and length of fin-filaments of N. venustus are briefly discussed and a current overview of the distribution of the species is given. In view of the proposed synonymy of a so recently described species and aiming to avoid problems of similar nature in the future, we also take the opportunity to reinforce herein the importance of the examination of large population samples and of intraspecific variation of secondary sexual features.
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