Nonnative fish introductions disrupt ecosystem processes and can drive native species to local extinction. Two of the most widespread, introduced species are the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Eurasia and the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Africa. In North and South America, these introductions stem from aquaculture facilities, as well as historical introductions for recreational angling. An emergent field of ecological niche modeling provides robust predictions of the geographic potential of alien species to better understand their capacity to become established at broad scales. We used this modeling approach to produce spatially explicit predictions of the invasive potential of common carp and Nile tilapia in the Americas. Model predictions were tested using occurrence data for established populations in their native area and in the Americas. Results indicated that predictive power of niche models was high. Distributional potential of common carp in the Americas covers most temperate regions and high mountain tropical aquatic systems, whereas that of Nile tilapia is focused in the tropics and coast areas. The consequences of the potential establishment of these exotic species can be profound on native aquatic faunas, particularly on highly diverse regions such as the Amazon Basin and central Mexico.
The systematics of the Glandulocaudinae is reviewed in detail and justification for the recognition of the group as a subfamily is discussed. The subfamily Glandulocaudinae consists of three genera: Lophiobrycon with one species plesiomorphic in some anatomical features but some others exclusively derived relative to the species in the other genera; Glandulocauda with two species intermediate in phylogenetic derivation; and Mimagoniates with seven species (one new), all more phylogenetically derived concerning their pheromone producing caudal-fin organs and with other anatomical characters presumably more derived than in the species of the other genera. Glandulocauda melanogenys Eigenmann, 1911, is considered a junior synonym of Hyphessobrycon melanopleurus Ellis, 1911. A replacement name, Glandulocauda caerulea Menezes & Weitzman, is proposed for G. melanopleura Eigenmann, 1911. Gland cells found in the caudal-fin organs of all species are histologically indistinguishable from club cells and probably secrete a pheromone during courtship. The club cells are associated with somewhat modified to highly derived caudal scales forming a pheromone pumping organ in the more derived genera and species. This subfamily is distributed in freshwaters of eastern and southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northeastern Uruguay.
A sistemática de Glandulocaudinae é revista e a justificativa para o reconhecimento do grupo como subfamília discutida. A subfamília Glandulocaudinae consiste de três gêneros: Lophiobrycon, com uma espécie plesiomórfica com relação a alguns caracteres anatômicos, mas outros derivados e exclusivos em relação às espécies dos outros dois gêneros; Glandulocauda, com duas espécies intermediárias quanto à condição dos caracteres derivados; e Mimagoniates, com sete espécies (uma nova), todas filogeneticamente mais avançadas quanto às características dos órgãos da nadadeira caudal produtores de feromônio e outras características anatômicas presumivelmente mais derivadas do que nas espécies dos outros gêneros. Glandulocauda melanogenys Eigenmann, 1911, é considerado sinônimo junior de Hyphessobrycon melanopleurus Ellis, 1911. O nome Glandulocauda caerulea Menezes & Weitzman, é proposto em substiutição para G. melanopleura Eigenmann, 1911. Células glandulares encontradas nos órgãos da caudal são histologicamente indistinguíveis de "células club" e provavelmente secretam algum tipo de feromônio durante a corte. As "células club" são associadas a escamas da caudal pouco ou inteiramente modificadas e fazendo parte dos órgãos bombeadores de feromônio nas espécies e gêneros mais derivados. Esta subfamília distribui-se em ambientes de água doce do leste e sul do Brasil, no Paraguai e nordeste do Uruguai
In this report, the gonads of 32 glandulocaudine species, representing 18 genera, are compared with 11 outgroup characiform species. Through the presence of spermatozoa within the ovarian cavity, internal fertilization of the female is confirmed for the 16 genera for which mature ovaries were available. No outgroup ovary studied contains spermatozoa. All mature glandulocaudine testes have a large portion of the posterior testis, which is devoid of developing germ cells and spermatocysts (aspermatogenic), devoted to sperm storage, with the degree of partitioning in that region varying greatly within the group. All outgroup species examined have spermatozoa with spherical nuclei. With the exception of the species of the genus Planaltina, which also have spherical nuclei, all glandulocaudines have elongated nuclei, which vary among the species from 3.6 μm to 31.6 μm in length. Distinct sperm packets (spermatozeugmata) are formed in five genera by two different methods. In the genera Xenurobrycon, Tyttocharax, and Scopaeocharax, all of the tribe Xenurobryconini, the spermatozeugmata are formed within the spermatocysts and released fully formed. In all genera of the tribe Glandulocaudini, which includes Glandulocauda and Mimagoniates, loose spermatozoa are released which cluster into spermatozeugmata within the posterior storage areas. These morphological specializations are discussed within a phylogenetic framework as adaptations for internal fertilization and are hypothesized to be independently derived. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
BackgroundFreshwaters are the most threatened ecosystems on earth. Although recent assessments provide data on global priority regions for freshwater conservation, local scale priorities remain unknown. Refining the scale of global biodiversity assessments (both at terrestrial and freshwater realms) and translating these into conservation priorities on the ground remains a major challenge to biodiversity science, and depends directly on species occurrence data of high taxonomic and geographic resolution. Brazil harbors the richest freshwater ichthyofauna in the world, but knowledge on endemic areas and conservation in Brazilian rivers is still scarce.Methodology/Principal FindingsUsing data on environmental threats and revised species distribution data we detect and delineate 540 small watershed areas harboring 819 restricted-range fishes in Brazil. Many of these areas are already highly threatened, as 159 (29%) watersheds have lost more than 70% of their original vegetation cover, and only 141 (26%) show significant overlap with formally protected areas or indigenous lands. We detected 220 (40%) critical watersheds overlapping hydroelectric dams or showing both poor formal protection and widespread habitat loss; these sites harbor 344 endemic fish species that may face extinction if no conservation action is in place in the near future.Conclusions/SignificanceWe provide the first analysis of site-scale conservation priorities in the richest freshwater ecosystems of the globe. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that freshwater biodiversity has been neglected in former conservation assessments. The study provides a simple and straightforward method for detecting freshwater priority areas based on endemism and threat, and represents a starting point for integrating freshwater and terrestrial conservation in representative and biogeographically consistent site-scale conservation strategies, that may be scaled-up following naturally linked drainage systems. Proper management (e. g. forestry code enforcement, landscape planning) and conservation (e. g. formal protection) of the 540 watersheds detected herein will be decisive in avoiding species extinction in the richest aquatic ecosystems on the planet.
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