Abstract:The Recôncavo Sul basin is a portion of the coastal river drainages of Eastern Brazil almost entirely included in the "Baixo Sul" region of Bahia State, and is limited at its northern and northwestern borders by the rio Paraguaçu basin and at its southern and southwestern borders by the rio de Contas basin. In this study a total of 41 strictly freshwater fish species were recorded, belonging to 28 genera, 12 families, and six orders (18 Characiformes, 13 Siluriformes, five Perciformes, two Cyprinodontiformes, two Gymnotiformes, and one Synbranchiformes). Ten possibly undescribed, four endemic, and four introduced species were recorded in the area of study. One species occurring in the area is considered threatened with extinction. An identification key to the species known for the Recôncavo Sul is provided, as well as comments about the taxonomy and distribution of some species. Due to its comparatively high diversity and relatively pristine condition the rio das Almas drainage is suggested as a key area for conservation. Resumo: A bacia do Recôncavo Sul faz parte das drenagens costeiras do Leste do Brasil, está quase inteiramente incluída na região do Baixo Sul do Estado da Bahia, é limitada ao norte e noroeste pela bacia do rio Paraguaçu e ao sul e sudoeste pelo rio de Contas. No presente estudo, um total de 41 espécies de peixes estritamente de água doce foi registrado, pertencentes a 28 gêneros, 12 famílias e seis ordens (18 Characiformes, 13 Siluriformes, cinco Perciformes, duas Cyprinodontiformes, duas Gymnotiformes e uma Synbranchiformes). Foram encontradas dez espécies possivelmente ainda não descritas, quatro espécies endêmicas e quatro introduzidas na área de estudo. Uma espécie presente na área está ameaçada de extinção. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies conhecidas para o Recôncavo Sul é apresentada, assim como comentários sobre a taxonomia e distribuição de algumas espécies. Devido à diversidade comparativamente alta e condições ambientais relativamente preservadas, a bacia do rio das Almas é indicada como uma área chave para conservação. Palavras-chave: inventário, peixes de água doce, Nordeste do Brasil, bacia do Leste, Baixo Sul.
A new species of Astyanax from the upper rio Paraguaçu basin, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil, is described. Astyanax sincora shares characters currently used to define the Astyanax scabripinnis species complex, as highest body depth approximately at vertical through pectoral-fin midlength and a low number of branched anal-fin rays (13–17). It differs from its congeners by a combination of characters, including eight branched dorsal-fin rays, six branched pelvic-fin rays, presence of bony hooks in pectoral and anal fins of males, dark midlateral line or stripe initiating posteriorly to the vertically elongate humeral blotch, and by the presence of 30–35 scales in the median longitudinal series. The generic positioning of the new species and some polymorphic morphological characters in Astyanax are briefly discussed. The degree of completeness of the lateral line in Hyphessobrycon balbus is discussed. [Species Zoobank registration: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D708FE7E-3FB5-4729-B438-779717F7ED1A]
A new species of the copionodontine genus Copionodon is described from the upper reaches of a tributary to the rio Paraguaçu in the Diamantina Plateau, Bahia State, northeastern Brazil. This species represents the northernmost occurrence of the subfamily yet known. The new species can be readily recognized by its large eye without a free orbital rim. Other characters such as the entirely cartilaginous second hypobranchial, and the uniformly broad irregular midlateral dark band further diagnose the new taxon. Its particular combination of characters is superficially intermediate between Copionodon and Glaphyropoma. Detailed analysis, however, indicates that it forms a monophyletic group with species of Copionodon and therefore it should be included in that genus.
A new species of Astyanax from tributaries of the rio de Contas, Bahia, Brazil, is described. The new species differs from congeners by having three horizontal series of scales from lateral line to pelvic-fin origin and the distal margin of third infraorbital distinctly separated from vertical and horizontal limbs of preopercle, leaving a broad area not covered by superficial bones. The new species further differs from most congeners by the presence of bony hooks on all fins of mature males. Particularly from congeners occurring in rivers of the Northeastern Mata Atlântica freshwater ecoregion, it further differs by having the highest body depth just anterior to the dorsal-fin origin, 34-37 pored lateral line scales, a vertically elongated conspicuous dark humeral blotch reaching below the lateral line and a conspicuous dark wide midlateral stripe extending from the clear area on the rear of the humeral blotch to the end of middle caudal-fin rays and forming an inconspicuous blotch on caudal peduncle.
Astyanax lorien and A. rupestris are described from tributaries of upper rio Paraguaçu basin, Bahia, Brazil. Both species shares the majority of the characters currently used to define the Astyanax scabripinnis species complex, with highest body depth approximately at vertical through pectoral-fin midlength and a low number of branched anal-fin rays (15–21). Astyanax lorien is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters, including presence of small bony hooks on all fins of mature males, a unique vertically elongate humeral blotch, and ventral margin of the third infraorbital close to the horizontal limb of preopercle. Astyanax rupestris is distinguished from its congeners also by a combination of characters, including ventral margin of third infraorbital distinctly separated from horizontal limb of preopercle, leaving a broad area without superficial bones, absence of midlateral stripe on body, absence of blotch on caudal peduncle, and presence of a vertically elongated conspicuous dark humeral blotch, not bordered anteriorly and posteriorly by distinct unpigmented areas. Both species are apparently endemic to the upper portion of the Paraguaçu river basin, within the Chapada Diamantina domain.
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