Characiformes is one of the most diverse orders of freshwater fishes, with 24 families that include 2,261 valid species, 316 of which were described in the past decade (Fricke et al., 2020a). The growing number of newly discovered species of characiforms provides a series of new morphological data that represent an important source of systematic and ecological information. Nevertheless, some morphological systems of characiforms remain poorly understood, such as the skeletal musculature (Datovo & Castro, 2012). Most surveys involving the characiform myology include only a limited number of structures and taxa investigated (e.g., Alexander,
A new species of Cyphocharax is described from the Upper Paraíba do Sul River basin, São Paulo, Brazil based on integrated morphological and molecular delimitation criteria. It is morphologically distinguished from its congeners by the presence of a round, dark blotch at the midlength of the caudal peduncle not extending to the proximal portions of the median caudal-fin rays, 19–20 circumpeduncular scales, 34–41 perforated lateral-line scales, 6–7 longitudinal scale rows above and below the lateral line, greatest body depth corresponding to 34.7–39.9% of standard length (SL), and the caudal peduncle depth corresponding to 13.3–15.2% of SL. The lowest genetic distances between the new species and other congeners are: 2.5% from C. gilbert, followed by 3.0% from C. santacatarinae, and 3.2% from C. aff. gilbert. All species delimitation criteria employed herein corroborated the recognition of the new species. In addition, comments on its conservation status are provided.
A new species of Astyanax from tributaries of the rio de Contas, Bahia, Brazil, is described. The new species differs from congeners by having three horizontal series of scales from lateral line to pelvic-fin origin and the distal margin of third infraorbital distinctly separated from vertical and horizontal limbs of preopercle, leaving a broad area not covered by superficial bones. The new species further differs from most congeners by the presence of bony hooks on all fins of mature males. Particularly from congeners occurring in rivers of the Northeastern Mata Atlântica freshwater ecoregion, it further differs by having the highest body depth just anterior to the dorsal-fin origin, 34-37 pored lateral line scales, a vertically elongated conspicuous dark humeral blotch reaching below the lateral line and a conspicuous dark wide midlateral stripe extending from the clear area on the rear of the humeral blotch to the end of middle caudal-fin rays and forming an inconspicuous blotch on caudal peduncle.
The rio da Dona is an important water body in the Recôncavo Sul basin used as a water supply for the neighboring towns and for agriculture, recreation and subsistence fishing. The knowledge about the ichthyofauna of this river is scarce. In this paper, an inventory of the fish fauna from rio da Dona basin and an identification key for the species recorded are presented. Additionally, taxonomic and conservationist issues are discussed. The specimens were collected in different sites along the upper, middle and lower courses of the rio da Dona. The fishes were anesthetized, fixed in formalin, conserved in ethanol, and identified. In addition to the material collected, specimens previously deposited in the ichthyological collection of the Museu de História Natural da Bahia were also analyzed. Twenty species, distributed into 16 genera, ten families, and four orders were recorded. One of these species, Aspidoras kiriri, is endemic to the rio da Dona. Four species, Cichla pinima, Coptodon rendalli, Poecilia reticulata and Serrasalmus brandtii, have been introduced into the river. Higher richness of native species has been recorded in the upper course of the rio da Dona, while in the middle and lower parts non-native species were also representative. Along the river, a series of anthropic impacts were observed, such as deforestation of native forest including the riparian vegetation, silting and dams, which can probably compromised the resident ichthyofauna.
Phenacogaster is the most species-rich genus of the subfamily Characinae with 23 valid species broadly distributed in riverine systems of South America. Despite the taxonomic diversity of the genus, little has been advanced about its molecular diversity. A recent molecular phylogeny indicated the presence of undescribed species within Phenacogaster that is formally described here. We sampled 73 specimens of Phenacogaster and sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in order to undertake species delimitation analyses and evaluate their intra- and interspecific genetic diversity. The results show the presence of 14 species, 13 of which are valid and one undescribed. The new species is known from the tributaries of the Xingu basin, the Rio das Mortes of the Araguaia basin, and the Rio Teles Pires of the Tapajós basin. It is distinguished by the incomplete lateral line, position of the humeral blotch near the pseudotympanum, and shape of the caudal-peduncle blotch. Meristic data and genetic differentiation relative to other Phenacogaster species represent strong evidence for the recognition of the new species and highlight the occurrence of an additional lineage of P. franciscoensis.
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