Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of the aqueous extract of Bixa orellana on the liver enzymes such as AST, ALT and ALP and also to evaluate the efficacy of the extract for the protection of the renal function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Methods: Diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin dissolved in saline while the normal control group was given propylene glycol. Diabetes induced animals were randomly assigned into different groups. Blood samples were collected from all the control and experimental group. Estimation of urea, uric acid and creatinine as well as the liver enzymes such as AST, ALT and ALP were assayed. These estimations were carried out on day 30 only.
Results:The 30 days treatment with the aqueous extract (200 mg/kg body weight) showed no statistical significance with respect to urea and uric acid but there was statistical significance in the levels of creatinine which is an indicator of glomerular filtration rate. The alteration in the levels of ALT and ALP were highly significant statistically but no changes observed in the level of AST.
Conclusion:The employed dose of the extract is nontoxic to the kidney and it even caused a significant decrease in level of liver enzymes when diabetic induced rat subjected to treatment hence this may indicate the hepatoprotective properties of this extract.
Phosphorylated chitosan (PC), a water-soluble derivative of chitosan possesses several biological and chemical properties suitable for diabetic wound healing. In the present study, we report the synthesis and diabetic wound healing capabilities of PC. Elemental analysis, FT-IR, 13C-NMR and 31P-NMR techniques were employed for the chemical characterization of PC. In vitro, antioxidant properties of PC were determined in terms of Fe3+ reducing, metal chelating, lipid peroxidation and superoxide scavenging ability. The wound healing potential of PC was assessed in diabetic excisional wound rat model. PC exhibited good water solubility, and in vitro antioxidant capacity. Wound contraction was higher in PC-treated wounds (91.11%) as compared to untreated wounds (67.26%) on 14th-day post wound creation. Histopathology of PC-treated wounds revealed improved tissue morphology with higher number of fibroblasts, a thicker epithelial layer, enhanced collagen deposits and angiogenesis as compared to untreated wounds. An overall increase of 57% and 25% in hydroxylamine and hexosamine content respectively were noted as compared to untreated wounds. A significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in SOD activity and a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in lipid peroxides were recorded in PC-treated wounds as compared to untreated wounds. These observations demonstrated that PC can be used as an effective agent in diabetic wound healing.
Illustration of phosphorylated chitosan (PC) synthesis and its wound healing potential: Chitosan was phosphorylated to impart diabetic wound healing properties. Chemical characterizations such as elemental analysis, FT-IR and NMR confirmed successful phosphorylation of chitosan. PC exhibited good in vitro antioxidant properties. To assess the diabetic wound healing potential, an excisional wound model was developed in diabetic rats. PC treatment demonstrated accelerated wound healing.
Background. Since children frequently consume acidic fruit beverages, dental erosion is common in children. The erosive effects on primary teeth are more profound due to the lesser thickness of enamel and dentin. This study evaluated if calcium fortification of fruit beverages could reduce their erosive potential. Methodology. Tropicana Orange Delight was the fruit beverage chosen and fortified with calcium carbonate. Forty noncarious extracted primary teeth were equally distributed into four groups. Samples in group A were exposed to calcium-fortified fruit beverages and group B to nonfortified fruit beverages for 1, 2, and 3 min. The pH and calcium ion concentration of both the fruit beverages were evaluated from baseline through the test period. Samples in groups C and D were then exposed to fortified and nonfortified fruit beverages for 10, 20, and 30 min. The surface roughness and microhardness of these samples were analysed. Results. Due to fortification, the pH and calcium ion concentration of fortified beverages was higher compared to nonfortified beverages at baseline. The calcium ion concentration of fortified beverages decreased from baseline in contrast to an increase in the nonfortified beverage group. This indicates that fortified beverage is less erosive in nature. The surface roughness of samples in the fortified beverage group did not decrease significantly from baseline. In the nonfortified beverage group, surface roughness values at 20 and 30 min of exposure were higher than baseline, suggesting that significant erosive changes occur at the prolonged duration of exposure. The microhardness values of samples in the fortified beverage group increased from baseline through the test period, suggestive of resistance to erosion offered by calcium fortification. The microhardness values of samples in the nonfortified beverage group decreased through the test period, suggestive of erosion. Conclusion. Calcium fortification of this fruit beverage significantly reduces its erosive potential on primary teeth.
Background: Electrical impedance spectroscopy is a technique which evaluates differences in dielectric properties of tissues for cancer identification. Methods: Murine hepatic cancer model was developed by intraperitoneal administration of N-nitrosodiethylamine to male BALB/c mice. Tumors obtained were evaluated for their conductivity in frequency range of (4 Hz–5 MHz). All tumors were subjected to histopathological grading and parameters such as free spacing, necrosis, and cell density were estimated on histological slides. The status of gap junctions and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) were studied using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, dye transfer assay, and electron microscopy. Results: Histopathological investigation revealed the presence of moderately to poorly-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in mice. All types of tumors showed higher electrical conductivity than normal liver tissue in frequency range (4 Hz–1 kHz). However, in frequency range (10 kHz–5 MHz) only poorly-differentiated tumors showed higher conductivity compared to normal tissue. The most prominent findings in moderately-differentiated and poorly-differentiated HCC were increased visible free spaces and necrosis respectively. The status of cell gap junctions were significantly deteriorated in tumors and a corresponding significant reduction in GJIC was also observed. These biological indicators were correlated with electrical conductivity of hepatic tumors. Conclusion: Variations in electrical conductivity spectra of hepatic tumors reflect progression of HCC. General significance: Future studies can be planned to perform hierarchical clustering of dielectric parameters with more number of tumor samples to establish dielectric spectroscopy-based classification or staging of hepatic tumors.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.