Introduction. Preterm birth is the leading cause of newborn deaths and the second leading cause of death in children under five years old. Three-quarters of them could be saved with current, cost-effective interventions. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors of preterm birth in a secondary care hospital in Southern India. Methods. In the case-control study, records of 153 antenatal women with preterm birth were included as cases. Age matched controls were women who had a live birth after 37 weeks of gestational age. Gestational age at delivery and associated risk factors were analyzed. Results. The preterm birth rate was 5.8%. Common risk factors associated with preterm birth were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (21.4%), height <1.50 m (16.8%), premature rupture of membranes (17.5%), and fetal distress (14.9%). Mean birth weight for preterm babies was 2452 grams while the birth weight for term babies was 2978 grams. Conclusion. The commonest obstetrical risk factor for preterm birth was hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and nonobstetrical risk factor was height <1.50 m. The percentage of preterm birth was low, comparable to developing countries.
Aim To assess whether Dual Rinse HEDP, an etidronate that can be combined with NaOCl to create an endodontic irrigating solution containing both hypochlorite and a chelator in the form of 1‐hydroxyethane 1,1‐diphosphonic acid (HEDP), alters the clinical efficacy of NaOCl or adds any untoward clinical effects. Methodology In this randomized controlled double‐blind single‐centre trial, a pure NaOCl solution was compared to a HEDP‐containing counterpart regarding antimicrobial efficacy, postoperative pain, and the host response by means of changes in MMP‐9 levels in periapical fluid. Sixty patients presenting with asymptomatic apical periodontitis (one tooth each) were randomly divided into two groups (N = 30) based on irrigation regime. Pre‐ and post‐treatment microbial aerobic and anaerobic cultures and MMP‐9/total protein (TP) periapical fluid samples were collected. Postoperative pain levels were assessed 24 h after treatment. Categorical data were compared between groups using the Fisher's exact test, continuous data using the Wilcoxon signed‐rank test, α = 0.05. Results Irrigation with pure NaOCl rendered 40% canals free of culturable microorganisms, compared to 50% with the NaOCl/HEDP mixture (P = 0.60). As assessed by matrix‐assisted laser desorption/ionization‐time‐of‐flight analysis (MALDI‐TOF), no apparent selection of aerobic or anaerobic taxa occurred in either group. One patient in the NaOCl group experienced moderate pain, whilst two patients in the NaOCl/HEDP group experienced mild postoperative pain. MMP‐9/TP levels in periapical fluid declined significantly (P < 0.001) after 1 week with no medication in the root canal, without significant difference between treatment groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions This trial found no influence of HEDP on clinical NaOCl effects.
Anaemia in pregnancy is still a concern during the reproductive period, as it is associated with increased maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. This study examined the maternal risk factors associated with increased prevalence of anaemia among antenatal and postnatal women. A prospective-retrospective cohort approach was carried out among 1,077 antenatal and 1,000 postnatal women. The haemoglobin was estimated using the cyanmethaemoglobin method. The maternal factors included were age, parity, education, socioeconomic status, spacing, history of bleeding, worm infestation, period of gestation, knowledge regarding anaemia in pregnancy, food selection ability and compliance to iron supplementation. Of the 1,077 antenatal women studied, 540 were anaemic. Among the 1,000 postnatal women, the prevalence was 537 (53.7%). The high prevalence was strongly associated with low socioeconomic status (OR 1.409 [1.048-1.899]; p < 0.023) which affected their knowledge and health seeking behaviour in both the groups. Hence it can be concluded that empowering women in terms of education and economic status is the key factor in combating anaemia in pregnancy to prevent the vicious cycle of associated problems.
Outcome expectations of direct pulp capping in carious teeth are obscured by a clinically unknown infiltration and breakdown of the dental pulp tissue. Histologic studies showed that this soft tissue breakdown is related to the innate immune system. We hypothesized 1) that a neutrophil biomarker could predict the outcome of direct pulp capping and 2) that using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as a lavage solution to remove necrotized infected pulp tissue could improve it. In this randomized trial in mature posterior teeth causing no or mild discomfort with carious pulpal exposures, pulpal fluid was collected to assess neutrophil gelatinase (matrix metalloproteinase 9 [MMP-9]) per total protein (TP) levels as a predictive local biomarker. Subsequently, the dentin-pulp wound was randomly washed with a 2.5% NaOCl or a physiologic saline solution (1:1 allocation), capped with mineral trioxide aggregate, and the tooth was immediately restored with a resin-based composite restoration. Ninety-six patients were included, and 84 individuals could be followed up to treatment failure or clinically confirmed pulp survival after a minimum of 1 y. The entire data were fitted to a Cox proportional hazards model to assess the influence of the observational variables MMP-9/TP and discomfort with the randomized lavage treatment on pulp survival. The Kaplan-Meier pulp survival rates after 1 y were 55% for saline and 89% for NaOCl lavage. The inflammatory state of the pulp tissue as reflected by MMP-9/TP levels and NaOCl lavage had a highly significant ( P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively) impact on pulp survival, while mild preoperative discomfort did not. In conclusion, MMP-9/TP showed great promise as a predictive local biomarker, and NaOCl lavage considerably improved the survival time of cariously exposed and directly capped pulps.
BackgroundAlthough melioidosis, is an important disease in many Southeast Asian countries and Australia, there is limited data on its prevalence and disease burden in India. However, an increase in case reports of melioidosis in recent years indicates its endemicity in India.Aims and methodsA population-based cross-sectional seroprevalence study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of B. pseudomallei by indirect haemagglutination assay and to investigate the associated risk determinants. Subjects were 711 adults aged 18 to 65 years residing in Udupi district, located in south-western coast of India.Key resultsOverall, 29% of the study subjects were seropositive (titer ≥20). Females were twice as likely to be seropositive compared to males. Rates of seroprevalence were similar in farmers and non-farmers. Besides gardening, other factors including socio-demographic, occupational and environmental factors did not show any relationship with seropositive status.Major conclusionsThere is a serological evidence of exposure to B. pseudomallei among adults in India. While the bacterium inhabits soil, exposure to the agent is not limited to farmers. Non-occupational exposure might play an important role in eliciting antibody response to the bacterium and may also be an important factor in disease causation.
There is a slow but steady rise in the case detection rates of melioidosis from various parts of the Indian sub-continent in the past two decades. However, the epidemiology of the disease in India and the surrounding South Asian countries remains far from well elucidated. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) is a useful epidemiological tool to study the genetic relatedness of bacterial isolates both with-in and across the countries. With this background, we studied the molecular epidemiology of 32 Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates (31 clinical and 1 soil isolate) obtained during 2006–2015 from various parts of south India using multi-locus sequencing typing and analysis. Of the 32 isolates included in the analysis, 30 (93.7%) had novel allelic profiles that were not reported previously. Sequence type (ST) 1368 (n = 15, 46.8%) with allelic profile (1, 4, 6, 4, 1, 1, 3) was the most common genotype observed. We did not observe a genotypic association of STs with geographical location, type of infection and year of isolation in the present study. Measure of genetic differentiation (FST) between Indian and the rest of world isolates was 0.14413. Occurrence of the same ST across three adjacent states of south India suggest the dispersion of B.pseudomallei across the south western coastal part of India with limited geographical clustering. However, majority of the STs reported from the present study remained as “outliers” on the eBURST “Population snapshot”, suggesting the genetic diversity of Indian isolates from the Australasian and Southeast Asian isolates.
The analysis of molecular cues in dentinal fluid from an excavated cavity could improve diagnostics in the context of minimally invasive caries treatment. In the current clinical trial we assessed whether the dentinal fluid levels of MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9; neutrophil gelatinase) would increase with the progression of carious lesions. MMP-9 is associated with neutrophil-related tissue breakdown in the pulp. Absolute MMP-9 levels were contrasted against the levels of MMP-2, an enzyme related to normal tissue turnover. Dentinal fluid was collected below deep and shallow caries from molars and premolars within the same patients aged 18 years and older (n = 30, 1 tooth per group/patient). Experimental teeth were isolated under a rubber dam prior to excavation. Dentinal fluid was collected from the bottom of the cavity using a size 25 paper point. MMP levels were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nonparametric methods were applied to test for differences between groups. Significantly more (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon test) MMP-9 was collected from the deep carious lesions than from the shallow counterparts. Pairwise comparison of MMP-9 values within patients revealed that there was more MMP-9 collected from deep lesions than from shallow counterparts in 27 of the 30 individuals under investigation (pairwise Wilcoxon test, p < 0.001). In contrast, no such difference existed for MMP-2. There was a high correlation between MMP-9 from deep and shallow lesions (Spearman's ρ = 0.72, p < 0.001), indicating that patients with more MMP-9 in the deep carious lesion also tended to have more MMP-9 in the shallow lesion.
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