BackgroundDespite controversies about the safest anesthetic technique for cesarean delivery in severely preeclamptic women, there is evidence that supports the use of spinal anesthesia in this group of patients.ObjectivesThis prospective randomized clinical trial was designed to determine the hemodynamic effects of low-dose spinal bupivacaine and the incidence of spinal anesthesia-associated hypotension in severely preeclamptic and healthy parturients undergoing cesarean sections.Patients and MethodsSpinal anesthesia was performed with 10 mg (= 2 mL) hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine plus 2.5 µg sufentanil in two groups of patients after they received 500 mL of IV lactated Ringer’s solution. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded before spinal anesthesia and at two minutes intervals for 15 minutes after the block, and then every five minutes until the end of the surgery. Hypotension was defined as more than 25% of decline in the mean arterial blood pressure compared to the baseline in both groups (or systolic blood pressure < 100 mmHg in healthy parturients) and was treated with 5 mg IV ephedrine. The total amounts of intravenous administered fluid and the total doses of ephedrine were recorded for each patient as well.ResultsThe incidence rate of hypotension among the preeclamptic patients was lower than that of the healthy parturients, despite the former group receiving smaller volumes of intravenous fluids (P < 0.05). The total doses of IV ephedrine for treating hypotension were significantly lower among the preeclamptic patients (3.2 mg in preeclamptic patients versus 7.6 mg in normotensive patients) (P = 0.02). The one-minute Apgar score was significantly lower for the preeclamptic parturients (8.4 ± 0.7 versus 7.2 ± 1.5) (P = 0.001), but there was no significant difference in the five-minute Apgar scores between the two groups.ConclusionsOur results confirm that low-dose bupivacaine spinal anesthesia is associated with a lower risk of hypotension than previously believed, and it can therefore be safely used in severe preeclamptic women undergoing cesarean delivery.
BackgroundPertussis is a highly communicable, vaccine-preventable respiratory infection. Immune response against this disease can be induced by infection or vaccination. Protection after childhood vaccination is minimal after ten years. Our aim was to assess pertussis immunity state in a population of healthy young medical students.MethodsIn this seroepidemiological survey, blood samples were obtained from 163 first-year medical students in Hamedan University, Iran. Serum level of IgG against pertussis toxin (IgG-PT) was measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. For qualitative assessment, IgG-PT levels more than 24 unit (U)/ml were considered positive. Data was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively considering gender and age groups.ResultsThere were 83 males and 80 females, with a mean age of 19.48 years, Prevalence of IgG-PT was 47.6% with mean level of 71.7 u/ml (95% confidence interval: 68.1–75.3). No statistically significant difference was observed with respect to sero-positivity of IgG-PT between males and females (45 cases (54%) vs. 34 cases (42%); P = 0.06). Mean IgG-PT levels in males and females were 84 U/ml and 58.8 U/ml, respectively (P = 0.91).ConclusionA considerable proportion of our study population with a positive history of childhood vaccination for pertussis was not serologically immune to pertussis. A booster dose of acellular pertussis vaccine may be indicated in Iranian, medical students regarding their serologic conditions and outstanding role in health care systems.
IntroductionIdiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a relatively common ophthalmic disorder characterized by the development of a serous detachment of the sensory retina. Psychophysiological factors may trigger or maintain CSCR, though, surprisingly, the association between CSCR and anxiety has yet to be studied. The aims of the present study were threefold: to determine whether 1) Iranian patients with CSCR have higher scores for anxiety, 2) anxiety is lower, if CSCR has been experienced twice, and whether 3) anxiety scores differ between sexes.MethodsA total of 30 patients with CSCR and 30 healthy age-and sex-matched controls took part in the study. A brief face-to-face interview was conducted covering demographic variables and history and occurrence of CSCR and assessing anxiety.ResultsCompared to healthy controls, anxiety was significantly higher in both first-time and second-time CSCR patients. In CSCR patients, anxiety scores did not differ between sexes.ConclusionHigher anxiety scores were observed in Iranian patients with CSCR, irrespective of whether this was the first or second occurrence of CSCR. This suggests there is no psychological adaptation in terms of reduced anxiety among patients with repeated CSCR.
This study was undertaken in order to compare the frequency of bacterial agents of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and their antimicrobial resistance in the elderly and younger adults admitted to a teaching hospital in Hamedan, Iran. A total of 150 cases of CAP, including 81 elderly and 69 younger adults, were evaluated. The most frequently identified pathogens in younger adults were Moraxella catarralis (11.5%), Streptococcus pneumonia (10.1%) and Staphylococcus aureus (10.1%); while in the elderly the most frequent were S. pneumonia (12.3%), S. aureus (6.1%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.1%). No significant differences were observed between the frequency and antimicrobial resistance pattern of isolated pathogens in either age group. We concluded that the cause of CAP in the elderly follows the general trend of infection in the younger population. Increased resistance of isolated bacteria to the current antibiotics highlights the need for further investigation of newer antibiotics for the treatment of CAP.
It is well known that false positive on newborn hearing screening increases cost and maternal anxiety and worry. We aimed to evaluate the influence of mode of delivery (cesarean, vaginal) and hospital type (private, public) on false positives first screening test based on screening age. Identification and control of these factors can reduce the rate of false positives. Overall, 2784 infants were evaluated by otoacoustic emissions test. Hearing screening test was performed before hospital discharge. Finally, rate of the false-positive between both delivery group and hospital types were compared on the basis of screening age. False-positive results are obtained when a condition is not present, but the test results indicate that it is present. False positive rate in the first screening test in vaginal delivery was significantly higher than cesarean delivery and rate of significantly decreased with screening age. This reduction was observed only in cesarean delivery. Also the rate of false positives in public hospital is 2.2 fold higher than private hospital ( = 0.000) and with increase in screening age, the rate of False positive is significantly reduced in private hospitals while this decrease is not observed in public hospital. Screening test be retarded as much as possible in cesarean group and private hospital and be conducted just prior to hospital discharge also in public hospital, screening test are done in a separate room. In this way, false positive can be reduced by about six times and the cost and concerns imposed by the rate of false positives minimized.
Background The most common cause of chronic gastritis is infection with Helicobacter pylori. Identifying the relationship between intensities of colonization and activity of gastritis helps the clinician in more effective treatment and posttreatment follow-ups. Methods In this cross-sectional study, endoscopic gastric biopsy samples of 544 patients who complained symptoms of dyspepsia for more than three months referring to the laboratory were studied. To determine the colonization rate of H. pylori and other pathological findings, Giemsa and H&E stains were, respectively, used. Results Among 544 subjects, 47 (8.64%) patients had no gastritis, 203 (37.32%) had mild gastritis, 278 (10.51%) suffered moderate gastritis, and 16 (2.94%) had severe gastritis. In this study, patients with mild H. pylori colonization rates had the highest level of mild activity (33.52%); in contrast, those with severe H. pylori colonization had the highest level of severe activity (43.75%). 93.96% of people with severe H. pylori colonization suffered from moderate and severe chronic gastritis. There is a significant statistical relationship between the intensity of H. pylori colonization and histopathological findings including intestinal metaplasia, atrophy, and lymphoid follicle formation. Conclusions According to the present study, with increasing intensity of H. pylori colonization, chronicity and activity of gastritis and its complications increase.
Background and Aim: Acne is a common skin disease resulting from a complex interaction of various pathogenetic factors. The aim of this study was to find out lipid profile abnormalities in acne vulgaris patients. Material and Methods: This descriptive analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on 45 acne patients and 45 age-and sex-matched healthy controls to assess plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) levels. Results: We showed a higher cholesterol level in acne patients (P=0.025), particularly in men (P=0.04). Other plasma lipids including TG, LDL, and HDL in male and female patients were higher compared to controls, but this is not statistically significant. Discussion and Conclusion: In conclusion, lipid profile was altered in our patients, with high cholesterol level as the commonest derangement, particularly in men. Therefore, screening for lipid profile abnormalities could be considered in the treatment of acne patients.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.