Administering oral rehydration solution containing Lactobacillus GG to children with acute diarrhea is safe and results in shorter duration of diarrhea, less chance of a protracted course, and faster discharge from the hospital.
Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion) are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05). No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic.Keywords: food additive, toxicity, cell cycle, test-plant system. Citotoxicidade de aromatizantes alimentares de Queijo e Queijo Cheddar sob meristemas de raízes de Allim cepa L ResumoApesar da grande importância para a indústria alimentícia, os aromatizantes, em geral, suscitam uma série de dúvidas quanto a sua citotoxicidade, mutagenicidade e carcinogenicidade, visto que, na literatura, poucos são os trabalhos encontrados avaliando a toxicidade, em nível sistêmico e celular, destes compostos químicos. Os meristemas de raízes de Allium cepa (cebola) são muito utilizados para a avaliação da toxicidade de compostos químicos de interesse. Desta forma, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar em células meristemáticas de A. cepa, de forma individual, a toxicidade em nível celular de aromatizantes alimentares sintéticos, idênticos aos naturais, de sabores Queijo e Queijo Cheddar, nas doses de 1,0 e 2,0 mL, nos tempos de exposição de 24 e 48 horas; e de forma associada, onde se utilizou 0,5 mL do aromatizante sabor Queijo associado a 0,5 mL do aromatizante sabor Queijo Cheddar; e 1,0 mL do aromatizante sabor Queijo associado a 1,0 mL do aromatizante sabor Queijo Cheddar, nos tempos de exposição de 24 e 48 horas. Para estas avaliações utilizou-...
The agouti is a species intensively hunted throughout the Amazon and the semi-arid regions of northeastern Brazil. Considering the current trend in conservation management of wild species, the aim of this study was to determine the morphometric reference to the heart of agouti raised in captivity, based on thoracic and cardiac measurements in these animals. Thirty adult agoutis, 1 to 3 years of age, without clinical signs of cardiac disease were selected. The animals were physically restrained and radiographies in laterolateral (LL) and ventrodorsal (VD) recumbence were produced. The following measures were taken: the apicobasilar length of the heart (at the most cranial height of the Carina region to the heart apex) (AB), maximum width of the heart perpendicular to AB (CD), heart inclination angle (AIC), trachea inclination angle (AIT), distance from the right heart wall (DPTd), distance from the left heart wall (DPTe) and vertical depth of the thorax, and the ventral face of the vertebral column to the dorsal border of the sternum at the level of the trachea bifurcation (H). The ratios between AB/CD, AB/H and CD/H were also analyzed. To calculate the vertebral heart scale (VHS), the AB and CD measurements were laid over the thoracic vertebra starting at T4. Radiographic evaluation showed values consistent with those reported in small animals and some wild and exotic species. The main biometric values in the chest cavity and heart of agouti are arranged as follows: (1) The ratios between AB/H ratio and CD/H were not sensitive for identifying heart increases (p>0.05), while the ratio AB/CD was more sensitive in this identification (p<0.05); (2) AIC: 21.2±6.4 o (mean between male and famale); (3) AIT for males and females: 9.93±3.23° and 8.4±3.94°; (4) DPTd and DPTe for males: 0.97±0.40cm and 0.7±0.30cm; (5) DPTd and DPTe for females: 1.12±0.42cm and 01.02±0.43cm; (6) VHS for males and females: 7.75±0.48v e 7.61±0.34v; (7) The caudal vena cava (CVC) was visualized dorsal-cranially and located right of the midline. The data obtained allowed the acquisition of the first reference values for biometry of the heart of agoutis, contributing to better understanding of cardiac morphology and identification of cardiomyopathy in these animals. Os principais valores biométricos mensurados na cavidade torácica e cardíaca da cutia, estão dispostas da seguinte forma: (1) As relações entre AB/H e CD/H não foram sensíveis para identificar aumento do coração (p> 0,05), enquanto a proporção AB/CD foi mais sensível nesta identificação (p <0,05); (2) AIC: 21,2 ± 6.4 o (média entre machos e fêmeas); (3) AIT para machos e fêmeas: 9.93 ± 3.23° and 8.4±3.94°; (4) DPTd e DPTe para os machos: 0,97 ± 0,40 cm e 0,7 ± 0,30, (5) DPTd e DPTe para as fêmeas: 1,12 ± 0,42 e 01,02 ± 0,43; (6) VHS para machos e fêmeas: 7.75±0.48v e 7.61±0.34v; (7) A veia cava caudal (CVC) foi visualizada dorso-cranialmente e localizada à direita da linha média.Os dados obtidos permitiram a obtenção dos primeiros valores de referência para a biometria do coração de ...
Chemotherapy is a standard treatment method for the patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Lately, cyclophosphamide (CYP) and doxorubicin (DOX) are used as the major chemotherapeutic agents especially for the treatment of breast cancer. Till date, no serum biomarker has been able to provide an early diagnosis of breast cancer. This study aimed to assess inflammatory, cardiac, renal and hematological markers in 56 breast cancer patients (BCP) before, during and after termination of chemotherapy with CYP and DOX. Blood samples were collected from the patients at the each treatment stages mentioned above. These samples were assessed for interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), creatinine, hemoglobin (Hb), leukocyte, platelet and Na /K -ATPase levels either by ELISA or colorimetric methods. The results suggest a significant increase in IL-6 level at all the stages in BCP as compared to control group. On the other hand, IL-10, CK and Na /K -ATPase levels were found to be significantly declined during all the stages. Moreover, the majority of hematological parameters remained unchanged throughout the treatment period with the exception of creatinine and Hb which showed slight modulation in their level at different stages. Based on the results, we conclude that breast cancer and co-treatment with CYP and DOX, interfere arious biological markers, thereby, showing the physiological imbalance.
Postural stability is a requirement for autonomous adaptive legged locomotion. Neurobiological research lead to the idea that there are independent central systems for posture and locomotion, which interact when required.In this work we propose a posture control system focused in the standing posture context. We integrate the proposed posture system with a CPG design based on coupled nonlinear oscillators.The proposed system generates movements for posture correction which are modulated according to sensory information. We integrate several different responses that individually contribute to the posture equilibrium. This coordination, competition and redundancy among the responses is a key element for adaptive, flexible and fault tolerant motor system.The control system is validated through a few experiments, where the robot is subjected to different posture situations ranging from roll and pitch variations to loss of feet support.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the action of Hymenaea stigonocarpa bark hydroalcoholic extract against a mutagenic compound using A. cepa meristematic root cells as a test system. The treatment groups were: Negative Control (NC) -distilled water; Positive Control (PC) -paracetamol at a concentration of 0.008 mg/mL, Jatoba Control (JC) -aqueous fraction jatobá-do-cerrado at 0.5 or 1.0 or 1.5 mg/mL, and Simultaneous Treatment (ST) -jatobá-do-cerrado aqueous fraction at a concentration of 0.5 or 1.0 or 1.5 mg/mL associated with paracetamol solution at a concentration of 0.008 mg/mL. All groups were analyzed at 24 and 48 h. Five onion bulbs (five replications) were used for each treatment group. The root tips were fixed in Carnoy and slides prepared by the crush technique. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each treatment group at each exposure time. Mitotic indices were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p<0.05). From the results it was found that the ST group, at the three concentrations, significantly potentiated the antiproliferative effect of the test system cells when compared to PC, NC and TJ at the three concentrations. Furthermore, the three ST concentrations significantly reduced the number of cell aberrations when compared to the number of aberrant cells obtained for the PC, demonstrating antimutagenic action on the A. cepa test system cells.Keywords: jatobá-do-cerrado, cytotoxicity, protector effect. Ação antimitótica e antimutagênica do ritidoma de Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart ex Hayne na divisão celularResumo O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a ação do extrato hidroalcólico do ritidoma de Hymenaea stigonocarpa frente a um composto mutagênico, utilizando como sistema teste as células meristemáticas de raízes de A. cepa. Os grupos tratamentos avaliados foram: Controle Negativo (CN) -água destilada; Controle Positivo (CP) -paracetamol na concentração de 0,008 mg/mL, Controle Jatobá (CJ) -fração aquosa de jatobá-do-cerrado na concentração de 0,5 ou 1,0 ou 1,5 mg/mL, e Tratamento Simultâneo (TS) -fração aquosa de jatobá-do-cerrado na concentração de 0,5 ou 1,0 ou 1,5 mg/mL associada a solução de paracetamol na concentração de 0,008 mg/mL. Todos os grupos foram analisados nos tempos de 24 e 48 h. Para cada grupo tratamento cinco bulbos de cebolas (cinco repetições) foram utilizados. As radículas foram fixadas em Carnoy e as lâminas preparadas pela técnica de esmagamento. Analisaram-se células em todo ciclo celular, totalizando 5.000 para cada grupo tratamento em cada tempo de exposição. Os índices mitóticos obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística do 05). A partir dos resultados verificou-se que o grupo TS, nas três concentrações, potencializou o efeito antiproliferativo significativo as células do sistema teste quando comparado ao CP, CN e TJ nas três concentrações. Ainda, o TS nas três concentrações reduziu de forma significativa o número de aberrações celulares quando comparado com o número de células aberrantes ob...
Wild rodents, such as the lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris), guinea pig (Cavia aperea), and black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) are intensely hunted throughout Amazonia and at the semiarid regions of northeastern Brazil. To contribute to the preservation of these species, more information about their anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology is needed. The aim of this study was to standardize the vertebral heart scale (VHS) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) in clinically normal black-rumped agouti, as well as to compare the results of these two methods, which are commonly used to evaluate the cardiac silhouette in domestic animals. Twelve healthy black-rumped agoutis, divided into two groups (six males and six females), obtained from the Nucleus for Wild Animal Studies and Conservation at the Federal University of Piauí, were radiographed in right and left lateral and dorsoventral projections. The values of the VHS were 8.00±0.31v (the number of thoracic vertebral length spanned by each dimension, starting at T4) for males and 8.11±0.41v for females, and there was no statistical difference between the decubitus (right and left) or between males and females (P>0.05). The CTR mean values obtained were 0.51±0.03 for males, and 0.52±0.02 for females, and there was no statistical difference between the genders (P>0.05). However, there was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.77 right decubitus and r=0.82 left decubitus). The thoracic and heart diameter had mean values of 6.72±0.61 and 3.48±0.30 cm (males), and for the females, it was 6.61±0.51 and 3.5±0.30 cm, respectively, and there was statistical difference between the genders. The results demonstrated high correlation between the VHS and CTR producing similar results, indicating similar clinical precision for assessing the size of the cardiac silhouette in the black-rumped agoutis.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.