– Marketing has been seen as one of the greatest problems faced by small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), but simultaneously one of the most important activities for their growth and survival. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to determine the importance and role of entrepreneurial marketing in SMEs.
– To reach this goal, a qualitative approach was adopted, with two case studies (SMEs) selected. As data-collecting instruments, interviews and documentary analysis were used, and the data-treatment technique was content analysis.
– The empirical evidence obtained shows that the importance of entrepreneurial marketing is recognized, but that it differs considerably according to firm size. In the SMEs studied, marketing is informal and reactive to market opportunities and the founder-entrepreneur has an influence on the decision-making process.
– The study contributes to the existing research about the role the founder-entrepreneur can have in the firm's ability to develop entrepreneurial marketing activities. From a practical viewpoint, the study has found that entrepreneurial marketing is based on networking to build and support marketing activity and it is associated with the use and development of the marketing management competencies of their entrepreneurs.
– The study is innovative because the authors are able to outline empirically new issues for future investigation in this area of scarce research. Second, an integrative and holistic model is proposed for entrepreneurial marketing in SMEs and this represents the primary contribution of the study.
Parental sense of competence is one of the central dimensions targeted on psychosocial
interventions aimed at supporting at-risk families. Researchers and practitioners need
reliable instruments to assess the parental role adapted for these families. Although the
Parental Sense of Competence (PSOC) scale has been frequently used to assess this
construct, there is still no adapted version for Portuguese parents. In this study, the
reliability, validity, and factor structure of the PSOC scale is examined with a clinical
sample of 146 mothers from at-risk families receiving psychosocial interventions for
family preservation from Child Protective Services. Results show that the Portuguese
version of the PSOC measures three distinct constructs with acceptable psychometric
properties: Efficacy, dissatisfaction, and controllability. As expected, the obtained
factors were significantly and positively related to parenting alliance and family
cohesion, and negatively associated with parenting stress. In sum, the proposed
Portuguese version shows reliability and validity evidences to measure three relevant
dimensions of parental self-evaluation, and it constitutes a cost- and time-effective
instrument suited for at-risk mothers.Junta de Andalucí
Aggression is an important risk factor for various forms of problem behaviors in adolescence, and research has often distinguished between reactive and proactive forms of aggression. The aim of the present study was to compare the psychometric properties (i.e., structural invariance, internal consistency, and criterion validity) of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) between males and females among a mixed-gender school sample of 782 Portuguese youth (M = 15.87 years, SD = 1.72). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that a two-factor first-order structure obtained the best fit and cross-gender measurement invariance was demonstrated after excluding item 21. The Portuguese version of the RPQ demonstrated generally adequate psychometric properties of internal consistency measured by Cronbach's alpha and omega coefficient, convergent validity, discriminant validity, criterion-related validity, and known-groups validity. Findings are discussed in terms of the use of the RPQ with male and female youths.
The main aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and some additional psychometric properties of the Antisocial Process Screening Device–Self-Report (APSD-SR) among a large forensic sample of incarcerated male juvenile offenders ( N = 438). The results, based on this forensic sample, support the use of the APSD-SR in terms of its factor structure, and internal consistency despite the fact an item had to be removed from the callous-unemotional (CU) dimension. Statistically significant positive associations were found with measures of psychopathic traits, CU traits, narcissism, and aggression, as well as negative associations with a measure of empathy. Findings provide support for the use of the APSD-SR among the incarcerated male juvenile offender population.
The aim of this study was to examine the role of psychopathic traits in the crime onset age of male juvenile delinquents. A group of early crime onset (n = 102), a group of late crime onset (n = 102), and a non-delinquent group (n = 102) were formed from a sample of 306 male youths from Portuguese juvenile detention centres and schools. Results showed that early crime onset participants scored higher on psychopathic measures, self-reported delinquency, crime seriousness and conduct disorder than late crime onset participants, and the non-delinquent participants. Psychopathic-traits scores showed significant associations with age of crime onset, age at first encounter with the law, age of first incarceration, self-reported delinquency, seriousness of crime and conduct disorder.
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