Parental sense of competence is one of the central dimensions targeted on psychosocial
interventions aimed at supporting at-risk families. Researchers and practitioners need
reliable instruments to assess the parental role adapted for these families. Although the
Parental Sense of Competence (PSOC) scale has been frequently used to assess this
construct, there is still no adapted version for Portuguese parents. In this study, the
reliability, validity, and factor structure of the PSOC scale is examined with a clinical
sample of 146 mothers from at-risk families receiving psychosocial interventions for
family preservation from Child Protective Services. Results show that the Portuguese
version of the PSOC measures three distinct constructs with acceptable psychometric
properties: Efficacy, dissatisfaction, and controllability. As expected, the obtained
factors were significantly and positively related to parenting alliance and family
cohesion, and negatively associated with parenting stress. In sum, the proposed
Portuguese version shows reliability and validity evidences to measure three relevant
dimensions of parental self-evaluation, and it constitutes a cost- and time-effective
instrument suited for at-risk mothers.Junta de Andalucí
Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) applications are widely used to prevent medical errors. In our center, a CPOE system has been in use since 2009 on both the inpatient and outpatient levels. A new and simple alert was introduced in the CPOE system to notify healthcare providers of the potential risk of viral reactivation when prescribing biological therapies, thereby facilitating the request for a serological profile (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg], anti-HBc, and anti-HBs) in patients who have not had these tests. Between May 2012 and May 2013, a total of 1,076 patients undergoing biological treatment were included in the implementation of the CPOE in our hospital, resulting in the identification of 4 HBsAg-positive and 69 anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative patients, two of them with positive viral loads. Since the implementation of this alert system, over 90% of patients who were prescribed a biological drug (BD) have undergone serological screening to detect hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The use of the alert system has increased the screening rate from less than 50% to 94% for HBsAg and from less than 30% to 85% for anti-HBc in patients for whom a BD is prescribed. Six patients received prophylactic antiviral therapy. No patient had HBV reactivation. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing a CPOE system that has allowed our hospital to increase the rate of HBV screening. Its use has facilitated the identification of patients at high risk for HBV reactivation and permitted physicians to prescribe prophylactic measures according to current guidelines. (HEPATOLOGY 2014;60:106-113)
The results reported show that the total score or the subscales should be used in a differentiated way according to the professional's objectives. Hence, PSI-SF may be a useful instrument for researchers and practitioners who work with at-risk families.
Parental behavior is one of the most influential factors on the development of adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. These behavioral problems are closely related and often co-occur. The objectives of this work were: (i) to identify adolescents profiles according to their behavior problems; (ii) to explore individual, family, and social characteristics associated with these profiles; and (iii) to analyze the potential role of parenting styles in belonging to adolescents’ profiles. A total of 449 Spanish adolescents (223 from families declared at-risk and enrolled in Child Welfare Services and 226 from families from the general population) participated in this study. The analyses revealed three profiles of adolescents based on external and internal behavior problems (adjusted, external maladjustment, and internal maladjustment). Parenting styles explained the adolescents’ belonging to different profiles, in which the indulgent style was the most favorable in general terms. The distinctive role of parenting styles on two types of maladjustment profiles was confirmed. The relationship between parenting styles and adolescent adjustment is a key component that should be included in interventions according to adolescents’ behavior problem profiles. Furthermore, the results shed light on the need that family interventions are complemented with individualized interventions with adolescents that accumulate stressful life events.
The purpose of this research was to present an overview of the existing family support resources in Spain for at-risk families. We analysed 64 family support services from 16 agencies belong to 11 regions of Spain. In a second phase, 20 positive parenting programs were analysed in depth to ascertain the extent to which they met evidence-based program quality criteria. Our results suggest that services for at-risk families are delivered by public, local and social agencies. Most interventions were psycho-educational and aimed at parental training. The analysis of the positive parenting programs' quality showed both strengths and weaknesses. Most programs relied on a previous needs analysis and interventions were, to some extent, outlined in a manual. Nevertheless, few programs have been evaluated according to evidence-based program criteria. In light of these results, we discuss several practical implications for services and family support policies aimed at at-risk families.
Resumen Este estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar las relaciones entre el bienestar psicológico, la autoeficacia para envejecer y la autoestima en personas mayores de 60 años no dependientes. Han participado 148 personas con edades comprendidas entre 60 y 96 años, completando una batería de instrumentos relacionados con la autonomía, el grado y tipo de actividad, la autoeficacia para afrontar el proceso de envejecimiento, la autoestima y el bienestar psicológico. Los resultados indican que el bienestar psicológico no está asociado con la edad, sino con un conjunto de factores de corte psicológico. En concreto la percepción de la salud, las actividades físico-deportivas, la autoeficacia para envejecer, la autoestima y la autonomía se relacionan con el bienestar psicológico, aunque sólo los tres últimos indicadores lo explican. Por tanto la autoeficacia y la autoestima funcionan como promotores del bienestar físico, psicológico y social, de manera que resulta fundamental motivar la participación de los mayores en actividades físico-deportivas, recreativas, sociales y cognitivas promoviendo así su bienestar.
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