Health literacy, a more complex concept than knowledge, is a required capacity to obtain, understand, integrate and act on health information , in order to enhance individual and community health, which is defined by different levels, according to the autonomy and personal capacitation in decision making . Medium levels of Health literacy in an adolescent population were found in a study conducted in 2013/2014, being higher in sexual and reproductive health and lower in substance use. It was also noticed that the higher levels of health literacy were in the area adolescents refer to have receipt more health information. The health literacy competence with higher scores was communication skills, and the lower scores were in the capacity to analyze factors that influence health. Higher levels were also found in younger teenagers, but in a higher school level, confirming the importance of health education in these age and development stage. Adolescents seek more information in health professionals and parents, being friends more valued as a source information in older adolescents, which enhance the importance of peer education mainly in older adolescents . As a set of competences based on knowledge, health literacy should be developed through education interventions, encompassing the cultural and social context of individuals, since the society, culture and education system where the individual is inserted can define the way the development and enforcement of the health literacy competences . The valued sources of information should be taken into account, as well as needs of information in some topics referred by adolescents in an efficient health education. Schizophrenia is a serious and chronic mental illness which has a profound effect on the health and well-being related with the well-known nature of psychotic symptoms. The exercise has the potential to improve the life of people with schizophrenia improving physical health and alleviating psychiatric symptoms. However, most people with schizophrenia remains sedentary and lack of access to exercise programs are barriers to achieve health benefits. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exercise on I) the type of intervention in mental health, II) in salivary levels of alpha-amylase and cortisol and serum levels of S100B and BDNF, and on III) the quality of life and selfperception of the physical domain of people with schizophrenia. The sample consisted of 31 females in long-term institutions in the Casa de Saúde Rainha Santa Isabel, with age between 25 and 63, and with diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). Physical fitness was assessed by the six-minute walk distance test (6MWD). Biological variables were determined by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Psychological variables were assessed using SF-36, PSPP-SCV, RSES and SWLS tests. Walking exercise has a positive impact on physical fitness (6MWD -p = 0.001) and physical components of the psychological test...
Objective: To define the criteria for the continuity of care to elderly people submitted to arthroplasty. Method: This is a qualitative study, inserted in the constructivist paradigm, whose methodological option fell on research-action. The participants were the health professionals of an orthopedic service and of the community care teams in the area of the hospital. Results: The different techniques allowed us to identify the difficulties in the safe transition from the hospital to the community. At this level, two categories of criteria for continuity of care emerged: criteria associated with the risk of ineffective management of the therapeutic regimen, and criteria associated with the knowledge and level of competence of the informal caregiver. Final Considerations: An elderly person undergoing arthroplasty (hip or knee) has functional alterations that affect their capacity for self-care and may lead to dependence, our findings allowed the design of an algorithm to facilitate clinical decision making and promote a safe hospital-community transition.
Objectives: To validate the content of a fall management risk protocol in long-term institutions for elderly people. Methods: Methodological, quanti-qualitative study using the Delphi technique. The tool, based on the literature, was sent electronically to obtain consensus among the 14 experts that meet the defi ned inclusion criteria. Results: The 27 indicators of the protocol are organized in three dimensions: prepare for the institutionalization (IRA=.88); manage the risk of falls throughout the institutionalization (IRA=.9); and lead the communication and formation (IRA=1), with a CVI=.91. Two rounds were performed to get a consensus superior to 80% in every item. Conclusion: The values obtained in the reliability test (>0.8) show that the protocol can be used to meet the intended goal. The next step is the clinic validation of the protocol with residents of long-term care institutions for elderly people. Descriptors: Accidental Falls; Aged; Accident Prevention; Nursing; Institutionalization. RESUMO Objetivos: Validar o conteúdo de um protocolo para a gestão do risco de queda em Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos. Método: Estudo metodológico, de abordagem quantiqualitativa, utilizando a técnica de Delphi. O instrumento, construído com base na literatura, foi enviado por via electrónica, para obter consenso entre os 14 peritos que respeitam os critérios de inclusão defi nidos. Resultados: Os 27 indicadores do protocolo estão organizados em três dimensões: Preparar a Institucionalização (IRA=,88); Gerir o Risco de Queda ao longo da Institucionalização (IRA=,9) e Liderar a comunicação e formação (IRA=1), com um CVI=,91. Foram efetuadas duas rodadas para se obter consenso superior a 80% em todos os itens. Conclusão: Os valores obtidos no teste de fi dedignidade (>0,8) atestam que o protocolo pode ser utilizado para atingir o fi m que se pretende. A próxima etapa é a validação clínica do protocolo com idosos residentes em Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos. Descritores: Acidentes por Quedas; Idosos; Prevenção de Acidentes; Enfermagem; Institucionalização. RESUMEN Objetivos: Validar el contenido de un protocolo para gestión de riesgo de caídas en Residencias Geriátricas. Método: Estudio metodológico, de abordaje cualicuantitativo, utilizando técnica de Delphi. El instrumento elaborado con base en la literatura fue enviado por vía electrónica para obtener consenso entre los 14 peritos que observan los criterios de inclusión defi nidos. Resultados: Los 27 indicadores del protocolo están organizados en tres dimensiones: Preparar la Institucionalización (IRA=,88); Gerenciar el Riesgo de Caída durante la institucionalización (IRA=,9); y Liderar la comunicación y formación (IRA=1), con un CVI=,91. Fueron efectuadas dos rondas para obtener consenso superior al 80% en todos los ítems. Conclusión: Los valores obtenidos en el test de fi delidad (>0,8) certifi can que el protocolo puede utilizarse para alcanzar el fi n pretendido. La siguiente etapa será la validación clínica del protocolo con ...
Objective:The objective of the present study was the design and validation, by a panel of experts, of a team intervention to manage the risk of falls in the hospitalized elderly. Method: The method used was a quanti-qualitative approach, using the Delphi method. The study was developed in two phases: in the first, five researchers designed the intervention; in the second, 13 professionals validated it. Results: The analysis of the content of the intervention designed by the participants in the first phase of the study allowed assignment of the indicators to the following previously defined categories: team formation; communication; leadership; monitoring; and mutual support. After two rounds, all the indicators obtained a consensus higher than 80%. Conclusion: The present study allowed validation of a team intervention by a panel of experts, so that teams can manage the risk of falls in hospitalized elderly. The reliability test results ensure that the intervention can be used safely in clinics and for research.A prevenção das quedas em idosos hospitalizados: elaboração e validação de uma intervenção em equipe La prevención de las caídas en ancianos hospitalizados: diseño y validación de una intervención en equipo How to cite this article: Cunha LFC, Baixinho CL, Henriques MA. Preventing falls in hospitalized elderly: design and validation of a team intervention. Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2019;53:e3479.
Objective: determine and elaborate the psychometric characteristics of nursing team practices and develop a behavior scale for fall risk management in institutionalized elderly people.Method: the scale was designed based on a literature review and observation of the work of the teams in a long-term care institution for the elderly. The content of the scale was analyzed and the concordance index of the 14 initial items was checked by nine experts. The scale was applied to a sample of 152 caregivers from six long-term care institutions for the elderly. The research conformed to ethical principles. The anonymity of the participants and the confidentiality of the data were ensured.Results: after the determination of the psychometric characteristics, it was observed that the unidimensional scale had six items, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.918 and a score ranging from 6 to 30 points. Analysis of the results revealed that information about risk factors and team discussions regarding preventive measures are not always present, allowing specific team members to value different measures, which impairs continuity of the care and individualization of the measures before the assessed risk.Conclusion: the scale shows suitable psychometric features and can be used in investigation and clinical practice to assess the practices and behaviors of nursing teams in fall risk management in institutionalized elderly patients. DESCRIPTORS:Falls. Elderly people. Caregivers. Risk management. Psychometry. Behavioral assessment scale. PRÁTICAS DAS EQUIPAS NA PREVENÇÃO DE QUEDA NOS IDOSOS INSTITUCIONALIZADOS: CONSTRUÇÃO E VALIDAÇÃO DE ESCALA RESUMOObjetivo: construir e determinar as características psicométricas da escala de práticas e comportamentos das equipes na gestão do risco de queda dos idosos institucionalizados.Método: a escala foi desenhada com base na revisão da literatura e na observação do trabalho das equipes numa instituição de longa permanência para idosos. Foi realizada a análise de conteúdo e a verificação do índice de concordância dos 14 itens iniciais por nove juízes. A escala foi aplicada a uma amostra de 152 cuidadores de seis instituições de longa permanência para idosos. A investigação respeitou os princípios éticos. Garantiu-se o anonimato e a confidencialidade dos dados.Resultados: após a determinação das caraterísticas psicométricas, verificámos que a escala, unidimensional, ficou constituída por seis itens, com um Alfa de Cronbach de 0,918, pontua entre 6 e 30 pontos. A análise dos resultados permite constatar que a informação sobre os fatores de risco e a discussão em equipe sobre as medidas preventivas nem sempre são mantidas, possibilitando que elementos diferentes da equipe possam valorizar medidas diferentes, o que não garante a continuidade de cuidados e a individualização das medidas face ao risco avaliado.Conclusão: a escala tem boas características psicométricas, podendo ser usada na investigação e na prática clínica para avaliar as práticas e os comportamentos das equipes na gestão do risco de q...
ABSTRACT. Falls in long-stay institutions for elderly people have a high prevalence, contributing to the physical and mental deterioration of institutionalized elderly. Objective: To determine the prevalence of falls among institutionalized elderly with and without cognitive decline, and to characterize the practices and behaviors of those with and without cognitive decline in managing fall risks, and relate them to some factors. Methods: The present correlational study was carried out with a sample of 204 institutionalized elderly, 50% of whom had cognitive decline. Results: The elderly with cognitive decline (40.2%) fell less often than those who did not have cognitive decline (42.2%) (p>0.05). Safety practices and behaviors were better in the elderly with cognitive decline (p<0.05). Most of the elderly with cognitive decline who fell took benzodiazepines (65.9%), in contrast with those without cognitive decline (32.2%). It was observed that 81.4% of the elderly without cognitive decline and 43.9% of those with cognitive decline who fell had a performance of over 12 seconds on the Timed Up and Go Test, where differences reached statistical significance in both groups of elderly. Conclusion: Data collected in the present study further the knowledge on risk factors in the genesis of falls and on the behavior of elderly with and without cognitive decline in maintaining their safety in self-care and accessibility.
Objective: To define the safe transition process from hospital to community of patients with chronic mental disorders and their families. Method: This was an action research study included in the constructivist paradigm. The participants in the study were nurses from a psychiatry service and from primary healthcare services. Results: After the identification of causes of continuity fragmentation, the following items emerged from the participants’ speeches: a) two criteria categories for safe transition (those associated with health status, dependence level, and self-care capacity of patients, and those associated with knowledge and competence level of informal caregivers); b) the design of an algorithm to facilitate clinical decision-making. Final considerations: In order to promote adherence to therapeutic treatment in the hospital-community transition, treatment plans must include patients and their families, and improve communication networks and support among care levels.
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