Health literacy, a more complex concept than knowledge, is a required capacity to obtain, understand, integrate and act on health information , in order to enhance individual and community health, which is defined by different levels, according to the autonomy and personal capacitation in decision making . Medium levels of Health literacy in an adolescent population were found in a study conducted in 2013/2014, being higher in sexual and reproductive health and lower in substance use. It was also noticed that the higher levels of health literacy were in the area adolescents refer to have receipt more health information. The health literacy competence with higher scores was communication skills, and the lower scores were in the capacity to analyze factors that influence health. Higher levels were also found in younger teenagers, but in a higher school level, confirming the importance of health education in these age and development stage. Adolescents seek more information in health professionals and parents, being friends more valued as a source information in older adolescents, which enhance the importance of peer education mainly in older adolescents . As a set of competences based on knowledge, health literacy should be developed through education interventions, encompassing the cultural and social context of individuals, since the society, culture and education system where the individual is inserted can define the way the development and enforcement of the health literacy competences . The valued sources of information should be taken into account, as well as needs of information in some topics referred by adolescents in an efficient health education. Schizophrenia is a serious and chronic mental illness which has a profound effect on the health and well-being related with the well-known nature of psychotic symptoms. The exercise has the potential to improve the life of people with schizophrenia improving physical health and alleviating psychiatric symptoms. However, most people with schizophrenia remains sedentary and lack of access to exercise programs are barriers to achieve health benefits. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exercise on I) the type of intervention in mental health, II) in salivary levels of alpha-amylase and cortisol and serum levels of S100B and BDNF, and on III) the quality of life and selfperception of the physical domain of people with schizophrenia. The sample consisted of 31 females in long-term institutions in the Casa de Saúde Rainha Santa Isabel, with age between 25 and 63, and with diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). Physical fitness was assessed by the six-minute walk distance test (6MWD). Biological variables were determined by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Psychological variables were assessed using SF-36, PSPP-SCV, RSES and SWLS tests. Walking exercise has a positive impact on physical fitness (6MWD -p = 0.001) and physical components of the psychological test...
a b s t r a c tThe deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) is the most commonly used free flap in mastectomy reconstruction.Preoperative imaging techniques are routinely used to detect location, diameter and course of perforators, with direct intervention from the imaging team, who subsequently draw a chart that will help surgeons choosing the best vascular support for the reconstruction.In this work, the feasibility of using a computer software to support the preoperative planning of 40 patients proposed for breast reconstruction with a DIEP flap is evaluated for the first time. Blood vessel centreline extraction and local characterization algorithms are applied to identify perforators and compared with the manual mapping, aiming to reduce the time spent by the imaging team, as well as the inherent subjectivity to the task.Comparing with the measures taken during surgery, the software calibre estimates were worse for vessels smaller than 1.5 mm (P ¼ 6e-4) but better for the remaining ones (P ¼ 2e-3). Regarding vessel location, the vertical component of the software output was significantly different from the manual measure (P ¼ 0.02), nonetheless that was irrelevant during surgery as errors in the order of 2e3 mm do not have impact in the dissection step.Our trials support that a reduction of the time spent is achievable using the automatic tool (about 2 h/ case).The introduction of artificial intelligence in clinical practice intends to simplify the work of health professionals and to provide better outcomes to patients. This pilot study paves the way for a success story.
Introduction: Innovations in 3D spatial technology and augmented reality imaging driven by digital high-tech industrial science have accelerated experimental advances in breast cancer imaging and the development of medical procedures aimed to reduce invasiveness. Presentation of case: A 57-year-old post-menopausal woman presented with screen-detected left-sided breast cancer. After undergoing all staging and pre-operative studies the patient was proposed for conservative breast surgery with tumor localization. During surgery, an experimental digital and non-invasive intra-operative localization method with augmented reality was compared with the standard pre-operative localization with carbon tattooing (institutional protocol). The breast surgeon wearing an augmented reality headset (Hololens) was able to visualize the tumor location projection inside the patient’s left breast in the usual supine position. Discussion: This work describes, to our knowledge, the first experimental test with a digital non-invasive method for intra-operative breast cancer localization using augmented reality to guide breast conservative surgery. In this case, a successful overlap of the previous standard pre-operative marks with carbon tattooing and tumor visualization inside the patient’s breast with augmented reality was obtained. Conclusion: Breast cancer conservative guided surgery with augmented reality can pave the way for a digital non-invasive method for intra-operative tumor localization.
<b><i>Background:</i></b> Axillary staging in patients with complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is still controversial. Our objective was to test tattoo alone and subsequentially tattoo plus clip as markers in the targeted axillary dissection of ycN0 patients. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Prospective cohort of cT1-T3, cN1 (proven histologically), M0 patients scheduled to receive NAC. Exclusion criteria were lobular histology, prior axillary surgery, and clinical N2/3. In cohort 1 this positive node (Neotarget node) was tattooed at diagnosis. If ycN0, a targeted axillary dissection was performed. After an interim analysis with negative results we changed the protocol in order to do a double marking procedure (Cohort 2): the positive node was clipped at diagnosis and after NAC a tattoo was done before surgery. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Thirteen patients in Cohort 1 and 18 patients in Cohort 2. Failure to identify the Neotarget node with multiple nodes retrieved in 9/13 (69%) of Cohort 1 patients. Also in 5/13 (38%) of Cohort 1 patients and 3/18 (17%) of Cohort 2 there was a failure to clearly identify tattooed nodes. In Cohort 2, clip identification by surgical specimen radiography allowed the identification of the tagged node in 17/18 (94,4%) of cases. The concordance between the clipped node and sentinel nodes was 16/18 (89%). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> The introduction of double marking by clipping the metastatic node and verifying their removal by surgical specimen radiography, using carbon ink as a tracer, allowed the identification of the metastatic node in 94% of cases, with a simple, reproducible, and easy-to-implement targeted axillary dissection procedure.
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