Background The world is facing many socio-demographic changes, such as an increased average life expectancy and the presence of chronic and non-communicable diseases, which in turn, leads to an enhanced dependency on others. Consequently, the demand for informal caregivers has significantly increased during the past few years. Caring for a dependent person is linked to a series of burdens that often leads to physical, psychological and emotional difficulties. Taking into consideration the difficulties faced by informal caregivers, knowing in which areas of functioning they need more guidance may help to relieve their burden. Therefore, the main goal of this study is to better understand the needs and competencies of the informal caregiver when caring for a dependent person in the different self-care domains. Methods This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire administered on a single occasion by face-to-face interview. Descriptive and inferential statistics alongside non-parametric statistical techniques such as the Mann-Whitney test and Spearman’s correlation were used. Results The average age of the 143 informal caregivers is 58 years old, with the youngest in our sample being 21 years of age. Most of them are female, and 50% of them are children taking care of one of their parents. Most of the dependent people are completely dependent in the areas of comfort and hygiene (53.8%) and medication management (55.9%). The female informal caregivers see themselves as having more competencies in sanitary hygiene than the male ones, with no significant differences in their competencies’ perception in the other areas of self-care. Older caregivers see themselves as less competent in certain areas of self-care such as feeding, mobility, transfers, medication and symptoms management and communication. Most of the information given to the informal caregiver is about the disease (82.3%) and the medication management (80.4%). There are still a lot of areas of self-care, where no information, or almost none, is given to the informal caregivers. Conclusions Before home discharge of a dependent person, it is important to acknowledge the needs and competencies of the informal caregiver, to capacitate them in looking after their relatives, to help decrease their burden and consequently, decrease the number of hospital readmissions.
This instrument is useful as an evaluation tool for health-promoting lifestyles and as an instrument for testing the effectiveness of health-promoting programs.
Objectives: To validate the content of a fall management risk protocol in long-term institutions for elderly people. Methods: Methodological, quanti-qualitative study using the Delphi technique. The tool, based on the literature, was sent electronically to obtain consensus among the 14 experts that meet the defi ned inclusion criteria. Results: The 27 indicators of the protocol are organized in three dimensions: prepare for the institutionalization (IRA=.88); manage the risk of falls throughout the institutionalization (IRA=.9); and lead the communication and formation (IRA=1), with a CVI=.91. Two rounds were performed to get a consensus superior to 80% in every item. Conclusion: The values obtained in the reliability test (>0.8) show that the protocol can be used to meet the intended goal. The next step is the clinic validation of the protocol with residents of long-term care institutions for elderly people. Descriptors: Accidental Falls; Aged; Accident Prevention; Nursing; Institutionalization. RESUMO Objetivos: Validar o conteúdo de um protocolo para a gestão do risco de queda em Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos. Método: Estudo metodológico, de abordagem quantiqualitativa, utilizando a técnica de Delphi. O instrumento, construído com base na literatura, foi enviado por via electrónica, para obter consenso entre os 14 peritos que respeitam os critérios de inclusão defi nidos. Resultados: Os 27 indicadores do protocolo estão organizados em três dimensões: Preparar a Institucionalização (IRA=,88); Gerir o Risco de Queda ao longo da Institucionalização (IRA=,9) e Liderar a comunicação e formação (IRA=1), com um CVI=,91. Foram efetuadas duas rodadas para se obter consenso superior a 80% em todos os itens. Conclusão: Os valores obtidos no teste de fi dedignidade (>0,8) atestam que o protocolo pode ser utilizado para atingir o fi m que se pretende. A próxima etapa é a validação clínica do protocolo com idosos residentes em Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos. Descritores: Acidentes por Quedas; Idosos; Prevenção de Acidentes; Enfermagem; Institucionalização. RESUMEN Objetivos: Validar el contenido de un protocolo para gestión de riesgo de caídas en Residencias Geriátricas. Método: Estudio metodológico, de abordaje cualicuantitativo, utilizando técnica de Delphi. El instrumento elaborado con base en la literatura fue enviado por vía electrónica para obtener consenso entre los 14 peritos que observan los criterios de inclusión defi nidos. Resultados: Los 27 indicadores del protocolo están organizados en tres dimensiones: Preparar la Institucionalización (IRA=,88); Gerenciar el Riesgo de Caída durante la institucionalización (IRA=,9); y Liderar la comunicación y formación (IRA=1), con un CVI=,91. Fueron efectuadas dos rondas para obtener consenso superior al 80% en todos los ítems. Conclusión: Los valores obtenidos en el test de fi delidad (>0,8) certifi can que el protocolo puede utilizarse para alcanzar el fi n pretendido. La siguiente etapa será la validación clínica del protocolo con ...
Aim To evaluate the effectiveness on lifestyle change of an mHealth intervention to promote healthy behaviours in adolescence (TeenPower) and to analyse the predictors of the mHealth intervention effectiveness. Design This study is designed as a non‐randomized controlled trial with a two‐arm structure. Methods Adolescents of 12–16‐year old were recruited from three school districts, with access to the Internet and smartphone/tablet devices. The intervention group was invited to engage in the mHealth intervention (TeenPower) for 6 months in addition to a school‐based intervention. The control group only followed the school‐based intervention. A repeated measures factorial ANOVA was used and the main effectiveness outcome was the lifestyle change measured by the adolescent lifestyle profile. Results The outcomes of the mHealth intervention (TeenPower) show a significant effect on nutrition (ƞ2p = 0.03, p = .03), positive life perspective (ƞ2p = 0.04, p = .01), and global lifestyle (ƞ2p = 0.02, p = .05), with a dropout rate of 62.1%. The analysis of the effectiveness predictors of the mHealth intervention suggested that older adolescents tended to show a significant increase in the rates of stress management (r = .40; p < .05). Conclusions Although the considerable dropout rate, the mHealth intervention presented significant impact on multiple lifestyle domains, providing support for the effectiveness of mHealth interventions for health promotion as an add‐on to standard interdisciplinary interventions. Impact Adolescents must have the necessary and appropriate knowledge for the correct and responsible decision‐making regarding their health and lifestyle. Innovative strategies (mHealth intervention) were used to promote healthy behaviours. This study evaluates the effectiveness of an mHealth intervention (TeenPower) specifically designed for adolescents. We found a significant impact in several lifestyle domains such as health responsibility, nutrition, positive life perspective, and global lifestyle.
Objective:To evaluate the level of knowledge and the availability of the Portuguese population to attend training in Basic Life Support (BLS) and identify factors related to their level of knowledge about BLS. Method: Observational study including 1,700 people who responded to a questionnaire containing data on demography, profession, training, interest in training and knowledge about BLS. Results: Among 754 men and 943 women, only 17.8% (303) attended a course on BLS, but 95.6% expressed willingness to carry out the training. On average, they did not show good levels of knowledge on basic life support (correct answers in 25.9 ± 11.5 of the 64 indicators). Male, older respondents who had the training and those who performed BLS gave more correct answers, on average (p<0.01). Conclusion: The skill levels of the Portuguese population are low, but people are available for training, hence it is important to develop training courses and practice to improve their knowledge. Knowledge of the Portuguese population on Basic Life Support and availability to attend trainingConhecimento da população portuguesa sobre suporte básico de vida e disponibilidade para realizar formação Conocimiento de la población portuguesa acerca del soporte básico de vida y disponibilidad para realizar formación
Objective: determine and elaborate the psychometric characteristics of nursing team practices and develop a behavior scale for fall risk management in institutionalized elderly people.Method: the scale was designed based on a literature review and observation of the work of the teams in a long-term care institution for the elderly. The content of the scale was analyzed and the concordance index of the 14 initial items was checked by nine experts. The scale was applied to a sample of 152 caregivers from six long-term care institutions for the elderly. The research conformed to ethical principles. The anonymity of the participants and the confidentiality of the data were ensured.Results: after the determination of the psychometric characteristics, it was observed that the unidimensional scale had six items, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.918 and a score ranging from 6 to 30 points. Analysis of the results revealed that information about risk factors and team discussions regarding preventive measures are not always present, allowing specific team members to value different measures, which impairs continuity of the care and individualization of the measures before the assessed risk.Conclusion: the scale shows suitable psychometric features and can be used in investigation and clinical practice to assess the practices and behaviors of nursing teams in fall risk management in institutionalized elderly patients. DESCRIPTORS:Falls. Elderly people. Caregivers. Risk management. Psychometry. Behavioral assessment scale. PRÁTICAS DAS EQUIPAS NA PREVENÇÃO DE QUEDA NOS IDOSOS INSTITUCIONALIZADOS: CONSTRUÇÃO E VALIDAÇÃO DE ESCALA RESUMOObjetivo: construir e determinar as características psicométricas da escala de práticas e comportamentos das equipes na gestão do risco de queda dos idosos institucionalizados.Método: a escala foi desenhada com base na revisão da literatura e na observação do trabalho das equipes numa instituição de longa permanência para idosos. Foi realizada a análise de conteúdo e a verificação do índice de concordância dos 14 itens iniciais por nove juízes. A escala foi aplicada a uma amostra de 152 cuidadores de seis instituições de longa permanência para idosos. A investigação respeitou os princípios éticos. Garantiu-se o anonimato e a confidencialidade dos dados.Resultados: após a determinação das caraterísticas psicométricas, verificámos que a escala, unidimensional, ficou constituída por seis itens, com um Alfa de Cronbach de 0,918, pontua entre 6 e 30 pontos. A análise dos resultados permite constatar que a informação sobre os fatores de risco e a discussão em equipe sobre as medidas preventivas nem sempre são mantidas, possibilitando que elementos diferentes da equipe possam valorizar medidas diferentes, o que não garante a continuidade de cuidados e a individualização das medidas face ao risco avaliado.Conclusão: a escala tem boas características psicométricas, podendo ser usada na investigação e na prática clínica para avaliar as práticas e os comportamentos das equipes na gestão do risco de q...
ABSTRACT. Falls in long-stay institutions for elderly people have a high prevalence, contributing to the physical and mental deterioration of institutionalized elderly. Objective: To determine the prevalence of falls among institutionalized elderly with and without cognitive decline, and to characterize the practices and behaviors of those with and without cognitive decline in managing fall risks, and relate them to some factors. Methods: The present correlational study was carried out with a sample of 204 institutionalized elderly, 50% of whom had cognitive decline. Results: The elderly with cognitive decline (40.2%) fell less often than those who did not have cognitive decline (42.2%) (p>0.05). Safety practices and behaviors were better in the elderly with cognitive decline (p<0.05). Most of the elderly with cognitive decline who fell took benzodiazepines (65.9%), in contrast with those without cognitive decline (32.2%). It was observed that 81.4% of the elderly without cognitive decline and 43.9% of those with cognitive decline who fell had a performance of over 12 seconds on the Timed Up and Go Test, where differences reached statistical significance in both groups of elderly. Conclusion: Data collected in the present study further the knowledge on risk factors in the genesis of falls and on the behavior of elderly with and without cognitive decline in maintaining their safety in self-care and accessibility.
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