BackgroundCinnamomum camphora has been cultivated as an economically important tree for its medicinal and aromatic properties. Selective breeding has produced Cinnamomum plants for special uses, including spice strains with characteristic flavors and aromas and high-potency medicinal cultivars. The molecular biology underlying terpenoid biosynthesis is still unexplored.ResultsGas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze the differences in contents and compositions of essential oil terpenoids in linalool- and borneol-type chemotypes of C. camphora. The data revealed that the essential oils consist primarily of monoterpenes with only very minor quantities of sesquiterpenes and diterpenes and that the essential oil differs in different chemotypes of C. camphora, with higher yields of (−)-borneol from the borneol-type than from the linalool-type. To study the terpenoid biosynthesis of signature compounds of the major monoterpenes, we performed RNA sequencing to profile the leaf transcriptomes of the two chemotypes of C. camphora. A total of 23.76 Gb clean data was generated from two chemotypes and assembled into 156,184 unigenes. The total length, average length, N50 and GC content of unigenes were 155,645,929 bp, 997 bp, 1430 bp, and 46.5%, respectively. Among them, 76,421 unigenes were annotated by publicly available databases, of which 67 candidate unigenes were identified to be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in C. camphora. A total of 2863 unigenes were identified to be differentially expression between borneol-type and linalool-type, including 1714 up-regulated and 1149 down-regulated unigenes. Most genes encoding proteins involved in terpenoid precursor MVA and MEP pathways were expressed in similar levels in both chemotypes of C. camphora. In addition, 10 and 17 DEGs were significantly enriched in the terpene synthase activity and oxidoreductase activity terms of their directed acyclic graphs (DAG), respectively. Three monoterpene synthase genes, TPS14-like1, TPS14-like2 and TPS14-like3 were up-regulated in the borneol-type compared to the linalool-type, and their expression levels were further verified using quantitative real-time PCR.ConclusionsThis study provides a global overview of gene expression patterns related to terpenoid biosynthesis in C. camphora, and could contribute to a better understanding of the differential accumulation of terpenoids in different C. camphora chemotypes.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s12864-018-4941-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cinnamomum camphora, a member of the Lauraceae family, is a valuable aromatic and timber tree that is indigenous to the south of China and Japan. All parts of Cinnamomum camphora have secretory cells containing different volatile chemical compounds that are utilized as herbal medicines and essential oils. Here, we reported the complete sequencing of the chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum camphora using illumina technology. The chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum camphora is 152,570 bp in length and characterized by a relatively conserved quadripartite structure containing a large single copy region of 93,705 bp, a small single copy region of 19,093 bp and two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 19,886 bp. Overall, the genome contained 123 coding regions, of which 15 were repeated in the IR regions. An analysis of chloroplast sequence divergence revealed that the small single copy region was highly variable among the different genera in the Lauraceae family. A total of 40 repeat structures and 83 simple sequence repeats were detected in both the coding and non-coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that Calycanthus is most closely related to Lauraceae, both being members of Laurales, which forms a sister group to Magnoliids. The complete sequence of the chloroplast of Cinnamomum camphora will aid in in-depth taxonomical studies of the Lauraceae family in the future. The genetic sequence information will also have valuable applications for chloroplast genetic engineering.
Abstract:The passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims), also known as the purple granadilla, is widely cultivated as the new darling of the fruit market throughout southern China. This exotic and perennial climber is adapted to warm and humid climates, and thus is generally intolerant of cold. There is limited information about gene regulation and signaling pathways related to the cold stress response in this species. In this study, two transcriptome libraries (KEDU_AP vs. GX_AP) were constructed from the aerial parts of cold-tolerant and cold-susceptible varieties of P. edulis, respectively. Overall, 126,284,018 clean reads were obtained, and 86,880 unigenes with a mean size of 1449 bp were assembled. Of these, there were 64,067 (73.74%) unigenes with significant similarity to publicly available plant protein sequences. Expression profiles were generated, and 3045 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between the KEDU_AP and GX_AP libraries, including 1075 (35.3%) up-regulated and 1970 (64.7%) down-regulated. These included 36 genes in enriched pathways of plant hormone signal transduction, and 56 genes encoding putative transcription factors. Six genes involved in the ICE1-CBF-COR pathway were induced in the cold-tolerant variety, and their expression levels were further verified using quantitative real-time PCR. This report is the first to identify genes and signaling pathways involved in cold tolerance using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing in P. edulis. These findings may provide useful insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating cold tolerance and genetic breeding in Passiflora spp.
Soil salinization is an increasingly serious threat that limits plant growth and development. Class I transporters of the high-affinity K+ transporter (HKT) family have been demonstrated to be involved in salt tolerance by contributing to Na+ exclusion from roots and shoots. Here, we isolated the PeHKT1;1 gene from hybrid poplar based on the sequences of the Populus trichocarpa genome. The full-length PeHKT1;1 gene was 2173 bp, including a 1608 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 535 amino acids and containing eight distinct transmembrane domains. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the PeHKT1;1 protein had a typical S–G–G–G signature for the P-loop domains and belonged to class I of HKT transporters. PeHKT1;1 transcripts were mainly detected in stem and root, and were remarkably induced by salt stress treatment. In further characterization of its functions, overexpression of PeHKT1;1 in Populus davidiana × Populus bolleana resulted in a better relative growth rate in phenotypic analysis, including root and plant height, and exhibited higher catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities than non-transgenic poplar under salt stress conditions. These observations indicated that PeHKT1;1 may enhance salt tolerance by improving the efficiency of antioxidant systems. Together, these data suggest that PeHKT1;1 plays an important role in response to salt stress in Populus.
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