Tumor cell migration is a well-orchestrated multistep process that drives cancer development and metastasis. Previous data indicated that CD146 expression correlates with malignant progression and metastatic potential of human melanoma cells. However, the exact molecular mechanism of how CD146 promotes melanoma cell migration still remains poorly understood. Here, we report that CD146 physically interacts with actin-linking ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins and recruits ERM proteins to cell protrusions, promoting the formation and elongation of microvilli. Moreover, CD146-promoted melanoma cell migration is linked to RhoA activation and ERM phosphorylation. CD146 recruits Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitory factors 1 (RhoGDI1) through ERM proteins and thus sequesters RhoGDI1 from RhoA, which leads to upregulated RhoA activity and increased melanoma cell motility. CD146-activated RhoA also promotes further ERM phosphorylation and activation through Rho-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate pathway, which reinforces CD146/ERM association. Thus, our results provide a mechanistic basis to understand the role of CD146 in regulating human melanoma cell motility.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) hold great promise for transporting CRISPR–Cas9 RNA-guided endonucleases (RNP) throughout the body. However, the cell-selective delivery of EVs is still a challenge. Here, we designed valency-controlled tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs) conjugated with DNA aptamer, and loaded the valency-controlled TDNs on EV surface via cholesterol anchoring for specific cell targeting. The targeting efficacy of different ratios of aptamer/cholesterol from 1:3 to 3:1 in TDNs on decorating EVs was investigated. TDNs with one aptamer and three cholesterol anchors (TDN1) efficiently facilitated the tumor-specific accumulation of the EVs in cultured HepG2 cells and human primary liver cancer-derived organoids, as well as xenograft tumor models. The intracellular delivery of RNP by TDN1-EVs successfully realized its subsequent genome editing, leading to the downregulation of GFP or WNT10B in specific cells. This system was ultimately applied to reduce the protein expression of WNT10B, which presented remarkable tumor growth inhibition in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo, and could be extended to other therapeutic targets. The present study provides a platform for the directional display of aptamer on surface labeling and the EVs-based Cas9 delivery, which provides a meaningful idea for future cell-selective gene editing.
Cinnamomum camphora, a member of the Lauraceae family, is a valuable aromatic and timber tree that is indigenous to the south of China and Japan. All parts of Cinnamomum camphora have secretory cells containing different volatile chemical compounds that are utilized as herbal medicines and essential oils. Here, we reported the complete sequencing of the chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum camphora using illumina technology. The chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum camphora is 152,570 bp in length and characterized by a relatively conserved quadripartite structure containing a large single copy region of 93,705 bp, a small single copy region of 19,093 bp and two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 19,886 bp. Overall, the genome contained 123 coding regions, of which 15 were repeated in the IR regions. An analysis of chloroplast sequence divergence revealed that the small single copy region was highly variable among the different genera in the Lauraceae family. A total of 40 repeat structures and 83 simple sequence repeats were detected in both the coding and non-coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that Calycanthus is most closely related to Lauraceae, both being members of Laurales, which forms a sister group to Magnoliids. The complete sequence of the chloroplast of Cinnamomum camphora will aid in in-depth taxonomical studies of the Lauraceae family in the future. The genetic sequence information will also have valuable applications for chloroplast genetic engineering.
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that were once considered “dark matter” or “transcriptional noise” in genomes are research hotspots in the field of epigenetics. The most well-known microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding, small molecular weight RNAs with lengths of 20–24 nucleotides that are highly conserved throughout evolution. Through complementary pairing with the bases of target sites, target gene transcripts are cleaved and degraded, or translation is inhibited, thus regulating the growth and development of organisms. Unlike miRNAs, which have been studied thoroughly, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a group of poorly conserved RNA molecules with a sequence length of more than 200 nucleotides and no protein encoding capability; they interact with large molecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, and regulate protein modification, chromatin remodeling, protein functional activity, and RNA metabolism in vivo through cis- or trans-activation at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic levels. Research on plant lncRNAs is just beginning and has gradually emerged in the field of plant molecular biology. Currently, some studies have revealed that lncRNAs are extensively involved in plant growth and development and stress response processes by mediating the transmission and expression of genetic information. This paper systematically introduces lncRNA and its regulatory mechanisms, reviews the current status and progress of lncRNA research in plants, summarizes the main techniques and strategies of lncRNA research in recent years, and discusses existing problems and prospects, in order to provide ideas for further exploration and verification of the specific evolution of plant lncRNAs and their biological functions.
These results demonstrate that resveratrol can prevent RGC death by blocking the Bax-caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway and suppressed gliosis-related inflammation in the retina after I/R injury. Together these results support the use of resveratrol as a possible therapeutic strategy for glaucoma.
BACKGROUND. Aggressive tumor cells can form perfusable networks that mimic normal vasculature and enhance tumor growth and metastasis. A number of molecular players have been implicated in such vasculogenic mimicry, among them the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, which is aberrantly expressed in aggressive tumors. Here we study the role and regulation of EphA2 in vasculogenic mimicry in prostate cancer where this phenomenon is still poorly understood.METHODS. Vasculogenic mimicry was characterized by tubules whose cellular lining was negative for the endothelial cell marker CD34 but positive for periodic acid-Schiff staining, and/or contained red blood cells. Vasculogenic mimicry was assessed in 92 clinical samples of prostate cancer and analyzed in more detail in three prostate cancer cell lines kept in three-dimensional culture. Tissue samples and cell lines were also assessed for total and phosphorylated levels of EphA2 and its potential regulator, Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K). In addition, the role of EphA2 in vasculogenic mimicry and in cell migration and invasion were investigated by manipulating the levels of EphA2 through specific siRNAs. Furthermore, the role of PI3K in vasculogenic mimicry and in regulating EphA2 was tested by application of an inhibitor, LY294002.RESULTS. Immunohistochemistry of prostate cancers showed a significant correlation between vasculogenic mimicry and high expression levels of EphA2, high Gleason scores, advanced TNM stage, and the presence of lymph node and distant metastases. Likewise, two prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and DU-145) formed vasculogenic networks on Matrigel and expressed high EphA2 levels, while one line (LNCaP) showed no vasculogenic networks and lower EphA2 levels. Specific silencing of EphA2 in PC3 and DU-145 cells decreased vasculogenic mimicry as well as cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, high expression levels of PI3K and EphA2 phosphorylation at Ser897 significantly correlated with the presence of vasculogenic mimicry and in vitro inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 disrupted vasculogenic mimicry, potentially through a reduction of EphA2 phosphorylation at Ser897.CONCLUSIONS. The expression levels of PI3K and EphA2 are positively correlated with vasculogenic mimicry both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, phosphorylation levels of EphA2 regulated by PI3K are also significantly associated with vasculogenic mimicry in vivo. Based on its functional implication in vasculogenic mimicry in vitro, EphA2 signaling may be a potential therapeutic target in advanced prostate cancer.
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