T-cell immunoglobulin domain, mucin domain mRNA quantification by real-time polymerase chain reaction in PBL and UC of renal transplant patients undergoing DGF or AGD may become a useful tool for an accurate noninvasive diagnosis of AR.
In this preliminary report, the higher expressions of ET-1 and ET-RA found in both DN and IgA nephropathy suggest a potential role for the endothelin system in DN as well as in other nondiabetic glomerular diseases.
BackgroundKidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is expressed in tubular epithelial cells after injury and may have a role in the development of renal graft fibrosis. In this study we evaluated the molecular and protein expressions of KIM-1 in dysfunctional allografts and also mRNA KIM-1 expression in urine as potential biomarkers of graft fibrosis.MethodsProtein and mRNA levels in renal tissue and urinary sediment cells of 69 kidney transplant recipients that undertook for-cause graft biopsies were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The histopathology was classified according to the 2007 Banff schema.ResultsKIM-1 protein expression was increased in biopsies with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) compared with biopsies showing acute calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity (CIN) (P <0.05). Kidney tissue KIM-1 mRNA signaling (in) was increased in biopsies with IF/TA compared with all other groups (P <0.05). In the urine cells KIM-1 mRNA was also increased in patients with IF/TA compared with patients with acute CIN (P <0.05). Significant correlations were found between KIM-1 protein and mRNA levels in tissue, between mRNA expressions in tissue and urine and between protein tissue expression and gene expression in the urine.ConclusionsKIM-1 seems to be a marker of kidney graft fibrosis. Urinary KIM-1 mRNA may become a useful non-invasive biomarker of the injuries that can trigger intra-graft fibrotic processes, such as interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy.
Background: The transcription factor FOXP3 is increased in acute renal rejection, but its influence on graft outcomes is unclear. This study correlated FOXP3 with dendritic cells and graft outcomes. Methods: We assessed 96 kidney transplants undergoing allograft biopsy for cause. FOXP3 mRNA was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and FOXP3 protein and DCsCD83 þ by immunohistochemistry. Graft function and survival were assessed at 5 years post-transplantation, as well as by independent predictors of graft loss. Results: Intragraft FOXP3 gene and protein expression were significantly correlated (r ¼ 0.541, p < 0.001). Both FOXP3 mRNA and protein were increased in patients with acute rejection (AR). High expression of FOXP3 mRNA or protein in biopsies did not correlate with clinical variables, but there was a trend to higher positive variation in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from biopsy to last follow-up. Patients with FOXP3-mRNA high had more DCsCD83 þ in biopsy, but these cells did not associate with AR. Five-year graft survival was not influenced by either FOXP3 mRNA or protein expressions. Conclusions: FOXP3 mRNA and protein had a good correlation in archival renal graft tissue. Increased FOXP3 expression was found in AR and FOXP3 associated with high numbers of DCs. However, both FOXP3 mRNA and protein was not associated with better allograft outcomes.
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