Although its efficiency against all Schistosoma species, praziquantel (PZQ) shows low efficacy against schistosomula and juvenile stages. The potential for development of resistance to PZQ has justified the search for new alternative chemotherapies. In this scenario, studies to new formulations, more comprehensive and without adverse effects, are being conducted. One viable and promising treatment is the study of medicinal plants as a new approach to the experimental treatment for Schistosomiasis. Amongst all the variety of the medicinal species studied, we can highlight Baccharis trimera (Less) DC, known as "Carqueja-amarga". This paper not only describes the effect of crude dichloromethane extract (DE) and aqueous fraction (AF) obtained from B. trimera, in vitro but also is the first one that investigates the in vivo efficacy of B. trimera against schistosomula, juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni BH strain. In the experiment, mice were treated with DE, AF and PZQ (40 and 200mg/kg) over the period of larval development (3 and 30 post-infection; pi), and adult worms (60days post-infection; pi). The in vitro results show that the DE and AF effects are dose-dependents, being the 130μg/mL the most effective one in a shorter period of incubation. The exposure of the in vitro samples over adult parasites were able to inhibit 100% of the oviposition in females. Likewise caused the mortality of the parasites with morphological alterations on the tegument, on the suckers, oral and acetabulum, in both males and females after 6-72h of exposure. Additionally, the in vivo treatments against juvenile and adult infection were more effective compared to the control group untreated. Administrations of AF and DE in day 30pi (juvenile worms) show female worm total burden reductions of 75% and 68% respectively. At the same period of infection reductions of respectively 98% and 97% egg/g in the faeces were seen. In relation to the different egg developmental stages (oogram), the results showed significant reductions, due to the reduction in the number of worms, especially the females. In conclusion, B. trimera exhibits major schistosomicidal effects in vivo against immature and adult worms of S. mansoni, opening up perspectives for future researches on substance or compound isolation and the elucidation of its mechanisms of action.
Introduction: Cervical cancer is one of the most common diseases among women, and cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Considering that cervical cancer is an important neoplasia in northeastern Brazil, and the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is directly associated with it, this work had aimed to correlate the cytological and/or colposcopic findings with HPV infection status, and verify the performance of MY09/MY11 and GP5+/6+ primers for HPV detection. Material and method: Patients in this study were from Penedo-AL, a city with high level of poverty (poverty rate of 60.62%). Out of 70 patients with cytological and/or colposcopic changes, 32 agreed to participate in the study. Results: Regarding cytology, 21 (30%) patients presented atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US); 20 (29%), atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS); 12 (17%), low-grade intraepithelial lesion (LSIL); five (7%), high-grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL); and 12 (17%), positive colposcopy. From these, 27 (84%) presented the band gene encoding for human ß-globin. From the 27 patients, eight (30%) were positive for HPV. The results showed that the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of HPV was detected in 15% and 30% by using MY-PCR and GP +-PCR, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that more than one type of oligonucleotide primer should be used in clinical samples to increase sensitivity for the detection of HPV.
INTRODUÇÃO: Considerada doença negligenciada pela OMS, a Leishmaniose visceral (LV) tem se expandido e urbanizado, sendo sua transmissão e expansão associadas a diversos fatores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar aspectos epidemiológicos da LV no município de Aracaju/SE, por meio de estudo retrospectivo da série histórica de LV humana e canina no período de 1999-2008. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados dados secundários do SINAN para os casos humanos, e o resultado dos inquéritos caninos e atendimentos da demanda passiva do Centro de Controle de Zoonoses (CCZ). RESULTADOS: Foram notificados 192 casos autóctones de LV humana, sendo 63,5% do gênero masculino. Crianças entre 1 e 4 anos foram mais acometidas (29,2%), seguidas de adultos entre 20-29 anos (15,6%) e de crianças entre 5-9 anos (15,1%). A letalidade geral foi de 8,9%, sendo mais acentuada em pessoas entre 60 a 69 anos (60%); 32,3% dos casos autóctones realizaram sorologia para HIV, com positividade de 6,9%. A confirmação laboratorial foi realizada principalmente mediante a imunofluorescência indireta isolada (71,1%). Dos 58.161 cães que realizaram sorologia a positividade foi de 5,4%, sendo 87,0% dos inquéritos realizados anualmente pelo CCZ, com uma positividade de 4,4%. Dos 7.501 cães trazidos ao CCZ por diversas queixas, o exame sorológico foi reagente em 12,0%. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados denotam o caráter endêmico da LV no município, mostrando a necessidade de ações que permitam a diminuição do risco para a população, principalmente aquela onde a incidência e a letalidade são maiores, como melhorias no diagnóstico da LV, assim como na co-infecção com HIV e no monitoramento da população canina, entre outros.
Schistosomiasis, which is caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma and by the species Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, is transmitted primarily by Biomphalaria glabrata mollusks. Infections occur in humans and mollusks in freshwater environments contaminated with feces from infected humans. This study aimed to evaluate potential foci of schistosomiasis based on the identification of infection sites for the snails, factors that increased the human infection probability of S. mansoni infection, and the relationship of the disease with abiotic, biotic, and sociocultural factors. The study was conducted in an urban area on the northeast coast of Brazil; this location was chosen based on the following factors: the presence of B. glabrata, nearby freshwater, and the absence of sewer treatment. A parasitological analysis was performed to evaluate infections of the mollusks and residents inside the perimeter defined by the collection points. Questionnaires were applied to obtain demographic data and to identify behaviors that led to human infection. To verify the contamination of freshwater by human feces, a microbiological analysis of the water was performed at the mollusk collection points to determine the rate of contamination with fecal coliforms. A total of 10,270 B. glabrata mollusks were collected between August 2013 and August 2014, of which 8.8% were positive for S. mansoni; the prevalence ranged from 0 to 34.5% over the study period. A total of 232 coprological samples from the residents were analyzed. The S. mansoni infection prevalence rate was 16.4%, and the S. mansoni parasitic load in the infected residents was 54.9 eggs per gram of feces on average. Males were more affected by the parasite, especially in the 8-17-year-old age range. Thermotolerant coliforms were observed at the mollusk collection sites, which indicated that freshwater and sewage were in continuous contact. This contamination indicated poor sanitary conditions, as was previously observed, which could be combined with detrimental behavior due to the residents' habits. These conditions cause a predisposition for both intermediate and definitive infections of the hosts by creating a socioenvironmental scenario that is conducive to the formation and maintenance of potential schistosomiasis foci. This and similar areas deserve special attention from the government with an aim of improving sanitation services and local resident knowledge to prevent future contamination.
The role of irrigated areas for the spread of schistosomiasis is of worldwide concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatial distribution of the intermediate snail host Biomphalaria in an area highly endemic for schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni, evaluating the relationship between irrigation and types of natural water sources on one hand, and the influence of place and time of water exposure on the intensity of human infection on the other. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to map the distribution of the intermediate snail hosts in Ilha das Flores, Sergipe, Brazil, combined with a clinical/epidemiological survey. We observed a direct correlation between the intensity of human infection with S. mansoni and irrigation projects. Malacological studies to identify snail species and infection rates showed that B. glabrata is the main species responsible for human schistosomiasis in the municipality, but that B. straminea also plays a role. Our results provide evidence for a competitive selection between the two snail species in rice fields with a predominance of B. glabrata in irrigation systems and B. straminea in natural water sources.
Objective: To analyze the epidemiological and clinical aspects involved in the transmission and manifestation of schistosomiasis in a community of fishermen from the endemic area of Alagoas. Methods: Epidemiological, transversal, prospective, descriptive, quantitative study. The coproparasitological survey included 275 family units of fish workers and the epidemiological and clinical ones, those with a positive diagnosis for S. mansoni. Results: The prevalence of schistosomiasis was 13.9% (fishermen), 2.1% (shellfish) and 2.1% (family members). The occurrence of the infection varied according to gender, age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Exposure occurred near the home. Autochthonous and predominant low parasite burden, intestinal clinical presentation, abdominal pain and diarrhea were observed. There were no nutritional and pressure changes associated with parasitosis. Adherence to drug therapy and use of the schistosomicidal drug was feared. Conclusion: Fish workers are at high risk for contracting the disease with clinical hepatointestinal manifestation, which requires more intense health actions.
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