Pesq. Vet. Bras. 33(6):759-764, junho 2013 759 RESUMO.-[Perdas econômicas devidas à brucelose bovina no Brasil.] A brucelose é uma zoonose de importân-cia mundial. Recentes dados epidemiológicos dessa doença foram obtidos por meio de estudos que abrangeram em torno de 90% do rebanho bovino do Brasil. Observa--se escassez de informações sobre o impacto econômico causado pela brucelose bovina, portanto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar as perdas econômicas na pecuária brasileira. Gastos relacionados com as ocorrências de abortos, natimortos, subfertilidade, descartes involuntários, mortalidade, intervenções veterinárias, diminuição da produção de leite e de carne, foram considerados nos cálculos. As perdas devidas à brucelose bovina no Brasil foram estimadas em R$ 420,12 ou R$ 226,47 para cada fêmea infectada acima de 24 meses de idade em rebanhos de leite Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars). Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.
IntroductionHuman adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) are attractive cells for therapeutic applications and are currently being evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Prior to their clinical application, hASCs must be expanded ex vivo to obtain the required number of cells for transplantation. Fetal bovine serum is the supplement most widely used for cell culture, but it has disadvantages and it is not safe for cell therapy due to the risks of pathogen transmission and immune reaction. Furthermore, the cell expansion poses a risk of accumulating genetic abnormalities that could lead to malignant cell transformation. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the proliferation pattern as well as the resistance to spontaneous transformation of hASCs during expansion in a xeno-free culture condition.MethodshASCs were expanded in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium supplemented with pooled allogeneic human serum or fetal bovine serum to enable a side-by-side comparison. Cell viability and differentiation capacity toward the mesenchymal lineages were assessed, along with immunophenotype. Ki-67 expression and the proliferation kinetics were investigated. The expression of the transcription factors c-FOS and c-MYC was examined with Western blot, and MYC, CDKN2A, ERBB2 and TERT gene expression was assessed with quantitative PCR. Senescence was evaluated by β-gal staining. Karyotype analysis was performed and tumorigenesis assay in vivo was also evaluated.ResultsThe hASCs expanded in medium with pooled allogeneic human serum did not show remarkable differences in morphology, viability, differentiation capacity or immunophenotype. The main difference observed was a significantly higher proliferative effect on hASCs cultured in pooled allogeneic human serum. There was no significant difference in C-FOS expression; however, C-MYC protein expression was enhanced in pooled allogeneic human serum cultures compared to fetal bovine serum cultures. No difference was observed in MYC and TERT mRNA levels. Moreover, the hASCs presented normal karyotype undergoing senescence, and did not form in vivo tumors, eliminating the possibility that spontaneous immortalization of hASCs had occurred with pooled allogeneic human serum.ConclusionsThis complete characterization of hASCs cultivated in pooled allogeneic human serum, a suitable xeno-free approach, shows that pooled allogeneic human serum provides a high proliferation rate, which can be attributed for the first time to C-MYC protein expression, and showed cell stability for safe clinical applications in compliance with good manufacturing practice.
We characterize a novel human cohesinopathy originated from a familial germline mutation of the gene encoding the cohesin subunit STAG2, which we propose to call STAG2-related X-linked Intellectual Deficiency. Five individuals carry a STAG2 p.Ser327Asn (c.980 G > A) variant that perfectly cosegregates with a phenotype of syndromic mental retardation in a characteristic X-linked recessive pattern. Although patient-derived cells did not show overt sister-chromatid cohesion defects, they exhibited altered cell cycle profiles and gene expression patterns that were consistent with cohesin deficiency. The protein level of STAG2 in patient cells was normal. Interestingly, STAG2 S327 is located at a conserved site crucial for binding to SCC1 and cohesin regulators. When expressed in human cells, the STAG2 p.Ser327Asn mutant is defective in binding to SCC1 and other cohesin subunits and regulators. Thus, decreased amount of intact cohesin likely underlies the phenotypes of STAG2-SXLID. Intriguingly, recombinant STAG2 p.Ser327Asn binds normally to SCC1, WAPL, and SGO1 in vitro, suggesting the existence of unknown in vivo mechanisms that regulate the interaction between STAG2 and SCC1.
Cellulose nanofibrils and bioactive glass are assembled into a porous network and used as scaffold for bone regeneration. The obtained organic–inorganic composite material optimally combine the necessary features for in vivo bone repair.
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