Salmonella typhimurium causes a localized enteric infection in immunocompetent individuals, whereas HIV-infected individuals develop a life-threatening bacteremia. Here we show that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection results in depletion of T helper type 17 (T H 17) cells in the ileal mucosa of rhesus macaques, thereby impairing mucosal barrier functions to S. typhimurium dissemination. In SIV-negative macaques, the gene expression profile induced by S. typhimurium in ligated ileal loops was dominated by T H 17 responses, including the expression of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-22. T H 17 cells were markedly depleted in SIV-infected rhesus macaques, resulting in blunted T H 17 responses to S. typhimurium infection and increased bacterial dissemination. IL-17 receptor-deficient mice showed increased systemic dissemination of S. typhimurium from the gut, suggesting that IL-17 deficiency causes defects in mucosal barrier function. We conclude that SIV infection impairs the IL-17 axis, an arm of the mucosal immune response preventing systemic microbial dissemination from the gastrointestinal tract. A.G. served as consultant for the presentation of NTS bacteremia in African subjects. J.K.K. served as collaborator on studies with Il17ra −/− mice and provided useful comments on the experimental design. S.D. designed and supervised the SIV infections of rhesus macaques, blood sample scheduling, macaque protocols, processing and cell isolations for flow cytometry and DNA microarray analyses. A.J.B. was responsible for the experimental design and supervision of mouse studies, ligated ileal loop experiments in rhesus macaques, macaque protocols and analysis of host responses to Salmonella infection. A.J.B. collected tissue during the ligated ileal loop surgery and was responsible for the final manuscript preparation. A.J.B. and S.D. provided financial support for the study and equally contributed to the experimental design, supervision and data interpretation. Although nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) are common agents causing acute foodborne disease worldwide, it is unusual to isolate them from the blood of adults, because in immunocompetent individuals these pathogens remain localized to the intestine and cause a self-limiting gastroenteritis 1 . However, in people with underlying immunosuppression, NTS may spread beyond the intestine and reach the bloodstream, a serious complication known as NTS bacteremia2. The rise in the number of people with AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa has led to a dramatic increase in the frequency of NTS bacteremia3. In marked contrast to the pre-AIDS era4, NTS is currently a leading cause of hospital admission of adults and among the most common bacterial blood isolates from hospitalized adults in sub-Saharan Africa5, the vast majority of whom are HIV positive 3 . NTS infection in HIV-positive African adults is associated with high acute mortality rates (47%) 6 . Although the occurrence of NTS bacteremia in HIV-positive people is well documented, there are no reports inv...
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium thrives in the lumen of the acutely inflamed intestine, which suggests that this pathogen is resistant to antimicrobials encountered in this environment. However, the identity of these antimicrobials and the corresponding bacterial resistance genes remains elusive. Here we show that enteric infection with S. Typhimurium evoked marked interleukin (IL)–22/IL-17 mediated induction in intestinal epithelial cells of lipocalin-2, an antimicrobial protein that prevents bacterial iron acquisition. Lipocalin-2 accumulated in the intestinal lumen of rhesus macaques during S. Typhimurium infection. Resistance to lipocalin-2, mediated by the iroBCDE iroN locus, conferred a competitive advantage upon the S. Typhimurium wild-type in colonizing the inflamed intestine of wild-type, but not of lipocalin-2 deficient mice. These data support that resistance to lipocalin-2 defines a specific adaptation to growth in the inflamed intestine.
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium requires a functional type III secretion system encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) to cause diarrhea. We investigated the role of genes encoding secreted target proteins of the SPI1-associated type III secretion system for enteropathogenicity in calves. Salmonella serotype Typhimurium strains having mutations in sptP, avrA, sspH1, or slrP induced fluid secretion in the bovine ligated ileal loop model at levels similar to that of the wild type. In contrast, mutations in sipA, sopA, sopB, sopD, or sopE2 significantly reduced fluid accumulation in bovine ligated ileal loops at 8 h postinfection. A strain carrying mutations in sipA, sopA, sopB, sopD, and sopE2 (sipA sopABDE2 mutant) caused the same level of fluid accumulation in bovine ligated ileal loops as a strain carrying a mutation in sipB, a SPI1 gene required for the translocation of effector proteins into host cells. A positive correlation was observed between the severity of histopathological lesions detected in the ileal mucosa and the levels of fluid accumulation induced by the different mutants. After oral infection of calves, the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium sipAsopABDE2 mutant caused only mild diarrhea and was more strongly attenuated than strains having only single mutations. These data demonstrate that SipA, SopA, SopB, SopD, and SopE2 are major virulence factors responsible for diarrhea during Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infection of calves.
Intestinal inflammation is frequently associated with an alteration of
the gut microbiota, termed dysbiosis, which is characterized by a reduced
abundance of obligate anaerobic bacteria and an expansion of Proteobacteria such
as commensal E. coli. The mechanisms enabling the outgrowth of
Proteobacteria during inflammation are incompletely understood. Metagenomic
sequencing revealed bacterial formate oxidation and aerobic respiration to be
overrepresented metabolic pathways in a chemically-induced murine model of
colitis. Dysbiosis was accompanied by increased formate levels in the gut lumen.
Formate was of microbial origin since no formate was detected in germ-free mice.
Complementary studies using commensal E. coli strains as model
organisms indicated that formate dehydrogenase and terminal oxidase genes
provided a fitness advantage in murine models of colitis. In
vivo, formate served as electron donor in conjunction with oxygen
as the terminal electron acceptor. This work identifies bacterial formate
oxidation and oxygen respiration as metabolic signatures for
Brucella species are facultative, intracellular, Gram-negative bacteria with marked tropism for the pregnant reproductive tract of domestic animals. All Brucella species establish persistent infection in the reticuloendothelial system of their natural hosts. The mechanisms of placenta localisation, trophoblast tropism and abortion are poorly understood. A complete picture of the molecular determinants and mechanisms of the cell internalisation process began to emerge only recently. Cyclic β-1,2-glucan is a molecule secreted into the periplasm of Brucella and is required for intracellular Brucella to avoid fusion of the phagosome with lysosomes. The type IV secretion system translocates Brucella effector proteins into host cells and is critical for both survival and replication of Brucella in infected host cells. Some aspects of the pathogenesis and pathobiology of brucellosis in productive domestic animals are discussed in this section.
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