Although visceral leishmaniasis is primarily transmitted by a biological invertebrate vector, transmission in the absence of the vector has been reported, including venereal transmission in humans. Considering the possibility of venereal transmission, we studied genital lesions in dogs naturally infected with visceral leishmaniasis and shedding of Leishmania sp. in the semen. Approximately 200 dogs were serologically tested for anti-Leishmania antibodies and divided into three groups: 1) serologically negative dogs (n = 20), 2) asymptomatic serologically positive dogs (n = 20), and 3) symptomatic serologically positive dogs (n = 20). Samples from both testes, all segments of both epididymes, prostate gland, glans penis, and prepuce were histologically evaluated and processed for immunodetection of Leishmania sp. Semen samples were obtained from 22 symptomatic serologically positive dogs and processed for detecting Leishmania DNA by polymerase chain reaction. A significantly higher frequency of inflammation was observed in the epididymes, glans penis, and prepuce of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis, which was associated with a high frequency of immunohistochemically positive tissues (up to 95% of tissues from symptomatic dogs were positive by immunohistochemistry). Leishmania DNA was detected in eight of 22 semen samples from symptomatic dogs. Together these findings indicate that genital lesions and shedding of Leishmania sp. (donovani complex) in the semen are associated with visceral leishmaniasis. Additional studies should address the possibility of venereal transmission of the disease in the dog.
This study established a tractable ex vivo model of intact endometrium to explore the mechanisms of immunity and inflammation in the bovine endometrium.
Pesq. Vet. Bras. 33(6):759-764, junho 2013 759 RESUMO.-[Perdas econômicas devidas à brucelose bovina no Brasil.] A brucelose é uma zoonose de importân-cia mundial. Recentes dados epidemiológicos dessa doença foram obtidos por meio de estudos que abrangeram em torno de 90% do rebanho bovino do Brasil. Observa--se escassez de informações sobre o impacto econômico causado pela brucelose bovina, portanto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar as perdas econômicas na pecuária brasileira. Gastos relacionados com as ocorrências de abortos, natimortos, subfertilidade, descartes involuntários, mortalidade, intervenções veterinárias, diminuição da produção de leite e de carne, foram considerados nos cálculos. As perdas devidas à brucelose bovina no Brasil foram estimadas em R$ 420,12 ou R$ 226,47 para cada fêmea infectada acima de 24 meses de idade em rebanhos de leite Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars). Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.
The risk of bacterial infection of the endometrium causing uterine disease in cattle is increased in the progesterone-dominated luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, while oestrogens or oestrus are therapeutic or protective against disease. The first line of defence against bacteria, such as Escherichia coli that cause inflammation of the endometrium, is the innate immune system, which recognises bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This study tested the hypothesis that cyclic variation in ovarian hormone concentrations alters innate immune responses within the bovine endometrium. Ex vivo organ cultures of endometrium, and in vitro cultures of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), all mounted inflammatory responses to E. coli or LPS, with secretion of inflammatory mediators interleukin 1b (IL1b), IL6 and IL8, and increased expression of mRNA encoding IL1B, IL6, CXCL8 (IL8) and CCL5. However, these inflammatory responses, typical of innate immunity, were not affected by the stage of ovarian cycle in which the endometrium was collected for organ culture, or by exogenous oestradiol or progesterone. Although a dexamethasone-positive control reduced inflammation stimulated by E. coli or LPS, treatment with oestradiol or progesterone, or inhibitors of oestradiol or progesterone nuclear receptors, did not affect endometrial cell or PBMC secretion of IL1b, IL6 or IL8, or IL1B, IL6, CXCL8 and CCL5 gene expression. In conclusion, the stage of the oestrus cycle or ovarian steroids did not modulate the innate immune response in the bovine endometrium in vitro.
The NRAMP1 gene encodes a divalent cation transporter, located in the phagolysosomal membrane of macrophages, that has been associated with resistance to intracellular pathogens. In cattle, natural resistance against brucellosis has been associated with polymorphisms at the 3 untranslated region (3UTR) of the NRAMP1 gene, which are detectable by single-strand conformational analysis (SSCA). This study aimed to evaluate the association between NRAMP1 3UTR polymorphisms and resistance against bovine brucellosis in experimental and natural infections. In experimentally infected pregnant cows, abortion occurred in 42.1% of cows with a resistant genotype (SSCA r ; n ؍ 19) and in 43.1% of those with a susceptible genotype (SSCA s ; n ؍ 23). Furthermore, no association between intensity of pathological changes and genotype was detected. In a farm with a very high prevalence of bovine brucellosis, the percentages of strains of the SSCA r genotype were 86 and 84% in serologically positive (n ؍ 64) and negative (n ؍ 36) cows, respectively. Therefore, no association was found between the NRAMP1-resistant allele and the resistant phenotype in either experimental or naturally occurring brucellosis. To further support these results, bacterial intracellular survival was assessed in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages from cattle with either the resistant or susceptible genotype. In agreement with our previous results, no difference was observed in the rates of intracellular survival of B. abortus within macrophages from cattle with susceptible or resistant genotypes. Taken together, these results indicate that these polymorphisms at the NRAMP1 3UTR do not affect resistance against B. abortus in cattle and that they are therefore not suitable markers of natural resistance against bovine brucellosis.
The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of reusing intravaginal progesterone (P4) devices on the reproductive parameters in Santa Inês ewes. Females received intravaginal P4 devices for their first, second or third use for five days plus 300 IU eCG IM and 5mg dinoprost laterovulvar 24h before device removal. Blood was collected at different moments. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed from device removal to ovulation. Part of the ewes were submitted to artificial insemination by laparoscopy (IAL -n=55) with fresh semen, whereas the rest were bred by fertile rams (n=41). On the initial 18 h, ewes that received devices for the first time showed higher P4 concentrations (5.1±1.8 vs 3.5±1.4 vs 2.4±1.1 -P<0.05). However, after the first 48h no difference was observed among all treatments and P4 supraluteal concentrations were detected in all ewes upon device removal. Estrous response, interval from device removal to estrus, rate of ovulating animals, number of ovulations, time from device removal to ovulation and average conception rates after IAL or natural mating were similar among all 3 groups. Intravaginal progesterone devices can be used up to three times without altering reproductive parameters in Santa Inês ewes.Keywords: sheep, artificial insemination, CIDR, intravaginal progesterone insert, ovulation Palavras-chave: ovino, inseminação artificial, CIDR, dispositivo intravaginal de progesterona, ovulação RESUMO Avaliou-se a eficácia da reutilização de dispositivos intravaginais de progesterona (P4) sobre características reprodutivas em ovelhas Santa Inês. As fêmeas receberam dispositivos intravaginais contendo P4 para o seu primeiro, segundo ou terceiro uso por cinco dias, associado a 300 UI eCG IM e 5mg dinoprost laterovulvar 24h antes da remoção dos dispositivos. Ultrassonografia transretal foi realizada da remoção dos dispositivos até a ovulação. Parte das ovelhas foi submetida à inseminação artificial laparoscópica (IAL-n=55) com sêmen a fresco, enquanto outra parte foi acasalada por machos férteis (n=41). Nas 18 h iniciais, as ovelhas que receberam dispositivos pela primeira vez
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