Anabolic steroids caused structural and immunohistochemical changes within the female rat true vocal fold. Co-administration of anti-androgens did not prevent these changes, suggesting that anti-androgens have a limited role in the management of such changes in humans.
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative disorder that occurs in premature infants and may lead to permanent visual impairment. We investigated both the possible protective role of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) for preventing ROP and the role of IGF-1 in the disorder. Forty-five newborn rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 was raised in room air as controls. Group 2 was exposed to 60% oxygen for 14 days after birth, then transferred to room air. Group 3 was exposed to the same conditions as group 2, but received intraperitoneal injections of NAC on postnatal days 7-17. After 35 days, both eyes of all rats were processed for histology. Some sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to assess structural changes and other sections were immunostained to determine the location of IGF-1. Frozen sections also were prepared and stained for adenosine triphosphatase to detect retinal blood vessels. Compared to the controls, more blood vessels, many of which were abnormal, and increased IGF-1 expression were observed in group 2. In group 3, abnormal blood vessels and IGF-1 expression were less evident. NAC appeared to be an effective vascular-protective agent for ROP by decreasing IGF-1 expression.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely involved in the medical products owing to their antibacterial activity. However, their extensive use causes human hazards via dermal, inhalational and parenteral routes. The aim of the current study was to investigate the toxic effect of different doses of AgNPs on the ovaries and the kidneys of the adult female Albino Rats. Forty female rats were randomly allocated to three treated groups and a control to assess the toxic effect of AgNPs injected intraperitoneally at 1, 2, 4 mg/kg respectively over a period of 28 days. Renal and ovarian tissues together with blood samples were collected and examined for biochemicals, hormonal and histopathological changes. The results revealed a decrease in Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle-Stimulating hormone (FSH) in addition to increased levels of Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine among the studied groups in comparison to the control. Furthermore, there were considerable generations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) expressed by elevated plasma malonaldehyde (MDA) level and decreased antioxidant glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and antioxidants-superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels together with demonstration of histopathological alterations in the renal and ovarian tissues in the three studied groups compared to the control group. Conclusively, renal and ovarian tissues displayed both functional and histopathological structural alteration following exposure to AgNPs in a characteristic dose-dependent manner. This can be partly explained by generation of ROS indicated by elevation of MDA level and reduction of GPx and SOD levels.
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