Objective:To investigate the combined effect of both pioglitazone and methotrexate on disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis in a biphasic study; experimental and clinical.Methods:Experimentally: 50 rats were divided into 5 equal groups; controls, experimental arthritis, methorexate treated (0.1 mg/Kg daily), pioglitazone-treated (10 mg/kg daily), and methotrexate and pioglitazone treated. Clinically: forty-nine diabetic rheumatoid arthritis patients were included. Patients group consisted of 28 patients and they received pioglitazone 30 mg orally beside their usual treatment. Control group consisted of 21 patients and they continued their usual treatment plus placebo. Disease activity was assessed using DAS28 score. Patients were followed up for 3 months.Results:Pioglitazone produced a significant improvement of serum oxidative stress parameters (P < 0.05), and inflammatory cytokines in the treated arthritic group (P < 0.05). Clinically, the pioglitazone treated group showed significant improvement in DAS28 (P = 0.001) and C-reactive protein (P < 0.0001) compared to placebo group.Conclusion:The concomitant use of the PPAR γ agonist pioglitazone and methotrexate appears to be promising therapeutic strategy for rheumatoid arthritis patients.
NA-induced contraction of isolated rat CA rings is decreased in old rats, this is related to α1-AR. β-AR mediated dilatation was compromised in middle-aged rats (endothelium-dependent). α2-AR and SNP-mediated dilator effect seems to be unchanged.
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