The study evaluated productive performance of larvae Nannostomus beckfordi submitted to feeding management (Experiment one) and different stock density (Experiment two) in captivity conditions. The first experiment evaluated feeding rate (100 and 200 nauplii of artemia larvae −1 day −1 ) and feeding frequency (2 and 4× per day). Second experiment evaluated different stock density (1, 5, 10, 20, 40 larvae per litre). At the end of 15 days, for both experiment, the survival and productive performance such as total length (TL), final weight (FW), specific development rate (SDR), specific growth rate (SGR), uniformity for weight (UW) uniformity for length (UL) and relative condition factor (Kr) was determined. For the main results, there is no significant difference to the rate and feeding frequency. The stock density has no significant difference for UW, Kr and survival. Nonetheless, a reduction in the TL, FW, SDR, SGR and FW with the increase in density (20 for 40 larvae per litre) was observed. Thus, for this species Nannostomus beckfordi during to initial stage using exogenous feeding, it is recommended 20 larvae per litre fed with 100 nauplii per larvae having two meals per day.
Intensive fish farming has resulted in an increased concern for disease outbreaks. Probiotic use is one of the strategies being developed to improve fish health and productivity. Measures of probiotic colonization, growth performance, haematological characteristics and parasite load were used to evaluate the effect of diets supplemented with Enterococcus faecium on growth and health of Arapaima gigas juveniles. A completely randomized design with four treatments (diet with E. faecium at 1 × 106 CFU/g and 1 × 108 CFU/g, control diet and diet with the culture medium MRS) and three replicates was used. Ninety‐six Arapaima juveniles were distributed in 12 cages fed with the specified diet for 68 days. Colonization of the intestinal tract by lactic acid bacteria reduced the total number of heterotrophic bacteria in fish fed with probiotics compared to controls. Fish fed a supplemented diet containing 1 × 108 CFU/g presented higher values of weight gain, survival and fish growth uniformity, and lower values of feed conversion ratio. The prevalence of Trichodina sp. could have affected the survival of fish in the control group. Reduction in parasite load and an increase in haematocrit, the number of erythrocytes, thrombocytes, neutrophils and monocytes were also observed in fish fed the diet containing 1 × 108 CFU/g. Enterococcus faecium presented a probiotic effect in A. gigas juveniles and can be recommended for use at a concentration of 1 × 108 CFU/g to modify the gut microbiota, improve growth performance and haematology and reduce parasitic load.
RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a fauna parasitária de tambaquis na região do Baixo São Francisco-AL/SE-Brasil e correlacionar os índices de prevalência e intensidade média com fatores bióticos e abióticos. Foram coletados 252 espécimes para análise parasitológica de 10 pisciculturas. Os parasitos foram contabilizados, identificados, e determinaram-se os índices de prevalência e intensidade média, que foram correlacionados com fatores bióticos e abióticos. Dos peixes coletados, 65,5% estavam parasitados por pelo menos um táxon. Foram encontrados 10 táxons: Monogeneas, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, tricodinídeos, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Ichthyobodo sp., Dolops carvalhoi, Lernaea cyprinacea, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Henneguya sp. e Myxobolus sp. As maiores prevalências foram encontradas para Monogeneas (49,2%) e Myxobolus sp. (31,5%). Correlações negativas entre prevalência e fatores bióticos (peso e comprimento) foram observadas para Monogeneas (r2= -0,49; r2= -0,43), Myxobolus sp. (r²= -0,46; r²= -0,39) e Henneguya sp. (r²= -0,41; r²= -0,39). O fator abiótico temperatura apresentou correlação negativa com as prevalências de Lernaea cyprinacea (r= -0,39) e tricodinídeos (r= -0,33), enquanto a condutividade elétrica apresentou correlação positiva (r= 0,40) com a prevalência de tricodinídeos. Conclui-se que a fauna parasitária dos tambaquis cultivados na região do Baixo São Francisco é diversificada e com a carga parasitária dependente da qualidade de água e do estágio de desenvolvimento dos peixes.
Panagrellus redivivus is a nematode with a high protein content and low-cost production. It is successfully used in the larviculture of shrimp, however, it has not yet been evaluated as feed for Betta splendens larvae. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate P. redivivus as feed for betta larvae maintained at different depths of water. The experiment was based on a completely randomized 3 9 2 factorial design, represented by two feed types and one alternating feeding regime plus two water depths (2.5 and 5.0 cm). The Artemia feed promoted the highest weight gain, followed by the alternating feeding regime. The single use of the nematode as live feed produced the poorest weight gain. The water depth and the feeding method influenced the specific growth rate (SGR). At a depth of 2.5 cm, the alternating feeding promoted similar SGR compared to fish fed with Artemia only. Furthermore, at the greater water depth an improvement in SGR was observed in fish fed Artemia only, but the similarity to alternating feeding regime remains. Thus, the inclusion of nematode is an appropriate and lower cost feed strategy for the betta larviculture independent of water depths.
K E Y W O R D Sbetta, feed, larvae, Panagrellus redivivus
This study evaluated the effect of enriched artemia nauplii with commercial probiotic for angelfish larvae determining productive performance, intestinal modulation and survival. Therefore, it experiment occurred in completely randomized design with five treatments (T1- 0.0, T2- 1.5, T3- 3.0, T4- 4.5 and T5- 6.0g of commercial probiotic) and four replaces during 20 days. After larvaculture, post larvae passed by biometric procedures to determine productive performance and then microbiological analysis. Occurred reduction of total heterotrophic bacteria while increased lactic acid bacteria in the intestinal tract from the post larvae for treatments T3, T4 and T5. The commercial probiotic also increased the survival and performance as final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate. For these reasons, the use of 3g of commercial probiotic promotes greater performance and intestinal modulation for angelfish larvae.
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