The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with the autochthonous probiotic bacteria Bacillus cereus on growth performance, haematological parameters and survival of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Tambaqui fingerlings (0.94 ± 0.02 g) were fed for 120 days the following diets: basal (without probiotic) and three supplemented diets (4.2 × 10 4 , 3.9 × 10 6 and 3.3 × 10 8 CFU/ g). Growth performance and haematological parameters were evaluated every 30 days. Thereafter, fish were challenged against Aeromonas hydrophila and survival was evaluated. Probiotic B. cereus improved weight and length gains (p < 0.05), and increased neutrophils and thrombocyte counts (p < 0.05) in tambaqui supplemented with 3.9 × 10 6 CFU/g diet. Challenged fish fed unsupplemented diet presented the lowest survival rate (33.4%) while fish fed diets supplemented at 4.2 × 10 4 , 3.9 × 10 6 and 3.3 × 10 8 CFU/g B. cereus had 88.8%, 80.5% and 80.5% relative per cent survival respectively. These results demonstrated that B. cereus supplemented as probiotics to C. macropomum for 120 days improved physiological and haematological responses, leading to enhanced survival in this fish species.
K E Y W O R D Samazon, bacterium, fish, haematology, nutrition, performance
This study evaluated the growth and survival of Betta splendens larvae exposed to different salt concentrations (NaCl 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g L-1) and stocking densities (1, 5, 10 and 15 larvae L-1) during 20 days. A completely randomized design in a 5x4 factorial scheme with three replications was used, and the fish reared in static system. At the end of the experiment were evaluated the final weight, total length, group uniformity, specific growth rate and survival. Total larvae mortality was observed in treatments with 4, 6 and 8 g L-1, demonstrating the susceptibility of this specie for these concentrations. However, the salinized water with 2 g L-1 promotes longer larvae when fish were maintained in densities of 10 and 15 larvae L-1. Further, there were no interactions between the addition of salt and stocking density for the other parameters. However, beneficial effects of salinized water (2 g L-1) were observed as better growth performance and survival of larvae. Regarding the stocking density, apart from addition of salt, the larvae present best development at density of 5 larvae L-1. Therefore, the use of salinized water (2 g L-1) and stocking density of 5 larvae L-1 is recommended for the Betta splendens larviculture.
The production of ornamental fishes has been intensified to attend the global market. With this expansion, an increase in infections and infirmities has been observed, most of which are attributed to pathogenic bacteria. Dietary supplements to improve growth and immunity of these animals have been introduced as a safe way to control and prevent disease outbreaks. This study therefore aims to isolate, identify, select and evaluate strains of lactic acid bacteria that show potential as probiotics for Pterophyllum scalare. Of 16 initial isolates, five strains were molecularly identified as Enterococcus faecium. Profiles of probiotic candidate strains were based on: catalase test and hemolytic activity; in vitro tolerance responses to NaCl (0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5 and 3.0%), pH (4, 5, 6, 8, and 9), and bile salts (5%); pathogen inhibition halo size maximum growth rate; and final counts of viable cells. In vivo effectiveness of the best performing strain in vitro was determined by growth and survival parameters for post-larvae over a period of 40 days. All strains fulfilled the criteria as probiotics in animals, with Strain 4 showing the best results in vitro, and improving growth and viability of fish in vivo.
RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as respostas hematológicas do acari-bola Peckoltia oligospila submetido ao estresse de transporte. Variações nos parâmetros de sangue foram analisadas às zero, seis, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas após o transporte. Respostas ao estresse foram observadas entre zero e seis horas do transporte, mas a maioria dos parâmetros retornou aos valores basais em 24 horas. O tempo de zero hora (momento imediato após transporte) foi o mais crítico, com valores elevados de glicemia, eritrócitos e eritroblastos. Respostas secundárias tardias foram observadas para a proteína plasmática total, o volume corpuscular médio (VCM) e a hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM) em seis horas após o transporte dos peixes, retornando aos valores basais após esse período. O número de leucócitos não sofreu alterações após o transporte. O estresse de transporte não comprometeu a fisiologia de P. oligospila, o que indica que esse peixe é resistente ao estresse se comparado com outras espécies. Porém, recomenda-se que não se realize qualquer outro procedimento estressante durante pelo menos 24 horas da recuperação dos peixes após transporte, para garantir a saúde e a sobrevivência dos animais transportados.
This study aimed to report the sanitary conditions through the hematological analysis of grouper E. itajara reared in captivity on estuarine conditions. Seven Goliath groupers (1,881.5±1,246.03g) were captured and kept in two tanks located on estuary. After 20 days, fish were collected for morphologic and hemato-physiologic evaluation. Two fish had clinical signs such as hemorrhagic spots and loss of scale due to agonistic behavior. Blood samples were collected, and the hematological parameters (biochemical, erythrogram and leukogram) were determined. Blood cells were characterized by their size, color and shape. Univariate statistic and principal components analysis were used to identify a hematological standard between fish with or without clinical signs. Four leukocyte types were found: lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and basophil. Regardless of the clinical signs the cell morphology did not present any difference among the fish. However, there is a significant correlation between erythrocyte and lactate on fish with clinical signs. Thus, agonistics encountered among the fish is a stressing factor in captivity conditions making it necessary to have adequate management related to the size of fish and stocking density.
In this study was evaluated the hematological response of ornamental Amazon plecos Cochliodon sp. (L145) and Hypostomus sp. (L28) submitted to transportation conditions. The erythrogram, leukogram, thrombogram, glucose and total plasma proteins (PPT) were determined at 0, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours after 3-hours simulated transportation. For basal hematological profile, the blood was collected immediately to allow comparisons after the transport stress. Cochliodon sp. showed reduction in total erythrocyte after 6 and 24 hours of post-transport, and increase after 6 hours. Hypoglycemia were observed at 6 hours post-transport for Hypostomus sp. Thus, the Hypostomus sp. showed higher resistance compared to Cochliodon sp. when to the transport stress.
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