Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen with a complex nomenclature. This genus is composed of two species, S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is divided into six subspecies. S. enterica subspecies enterica is composed of more than 1500 serotypes with some of great importance, such as S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. S. enterica subsp. enterica is responsible of more than 99% of human salmonellosis and therefore it is widely studied. However, the non-enterica subspecies of S. enterica have been little studied. These subspecies are considered to be related to cold-blooded animals and their pathogenicity is very limited. Phenotype and genotype information generated from different studies of non-enterica subspecies reveal poor ability to invade host cells and the absence or modification of important virulence factors. Also, the great majority of human infections due to non-enterica subspecies are related to a previous depressed immune system. Therefore, we propose to treat these subspecies only as opportunistic pathogens. For establish this premise, the present review evaluated, among other things, the genomic characteristics, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and reported human cases of the non-enterica subspecies.
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are commonly produced by healthy gut microbiota and they have a protective role against enteric pathogens. SCFAs also have direct antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens by diffusion across the bacterial membrane and reduction of intracellular pH. Due to this antimicrobial activity, SCFAs have promising applications in human health and food safety. In this study, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid, and valeric acid) in Salmonella strains isolated from poultry were determined. The effect of subinhibitory concentrations of SCFAs in Salmonella biofilm formation, motility, and gene expression was also evaluated. Butyric acid, propionic acid, and valeric acid showed a MIC of 3750 µg/mL in all strains tested, while the MIC of acetic acid was between 1875 and 3750 µg/mL. Subinhibitory concentrations of SCFAs significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the motility of all Salmonella strains, especially in the presence of acetic acid. Biofilm formation was also significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the presence of SCFAs in some of the Salmonella strains. Salmonella strain. Salmonella Typhimurium T7 showed significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of important virulence genes, such as invA and hilA, especially in the presence of butyric acid. Therefore, SCFAs are promising substances for the inhibition of the growth of foodborne pathogens. However, it is important to avoid the use of subinhibitory concentrations that could increase the virulence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella.
Hormones work in harmony in the body, and this status must be maintained to avoid metabolic disequilibrium and the subsequent illness. Besides, it has been reported that exogenous steroids (presence in the environment and food products) influence the development of several important illnesses in humans. Endogenous steroid hormones in food of animal origin are unavoidable as they occur naturally in these products. The presence of hormones in food has been connected with several human health problems. Bovine milk contains considerable quantities of hormones and it is of particular concern. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, based on hydroxylamine derivatisation, has been developed and validated for the quantification of six sex hormones in milk [pregnenolone (P₅), progesterone (P₄), estrone (E₁), testosterone (T), androstenedione (A) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)]. This method has been applied to real raw milk samples and the existence of differences between milk from pregnant and non-pregnant cows has been statistically confirmed. Basing on a revision of existing published data, it could be concluded that maximum daily intakes for hormones are not reached through milk ingestion. Although dairy products are an important source of hormones, other products of animal origin must be considered as well for intake calculations.
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