Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods.
Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen with a complex nomenclature. This genus is composed of two species, S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is divided into six subspecies. S. enterica subspecies enterica is composed of more than 1500 serotypes with some of great importance, such as S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. S. enterica subsp. enterica is responsible of more than 99% of human salmonellosis and therefore it is widely studied. However, the non-enterica subspecies of S. enterica have been little studied. These subspecies are considered to be related to cold-blooded animals and their pathogenicity is very limited. Phenotype and genotype information generated from different studies of non-enterica subspecies reveal poor ability to invade host cells and the absence or modification of important virulence factors. Also, the great majority of human infections due to non-enterica subspecies are related to a previous depressed immune system. Therefore, we propose to treat these subspecies only as opportunistic pathogens. For establish this premise, the present review evaluated, among other things, the genomic characteristics, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and reported human cases of the non-enterica subspecies.
Human gut microbiota plays an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases. Various dietary factors, including complex carbohydrates, such as polysaccharides, provide abundant nutrients and substrates for microbial metabolism in the gut, affecting the members and their functionality. Nowadays, the main sources of complex carbohydrates destined for human consumption are terrestrial plants. However, fresh water is an increasingly scarce commodity and world agricultural productivity is in a persistent decline, thus demanding the exploration of other sources of complex carbohydrates. As an interesting option, marine seaweeds show rapid growth and do not require arable land, fresh water or fertilizers. The present review offers an objective perspective of the current knowledge surrounding the impacts of seaweeds and their derived polysaccharides on the human microbiome and the profound need for more in-depth investigations into this topic. Animal experiments and in vitro colonic-simulating trials investigating the effects of seaweed ingestion on human gut microbiota are discussed.
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are commonly produced by healthy gut microbiota and they have a protective role against enteric pathogens. SCFAs also have direct antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens by diffusion across the bacterial membrane and reduction of intracellular pH. Due to this antimicrobial activity, SCFAs have promising applications in human health and food safety. In this study, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid, and valeric acid) in Salmonella strains isolated from poultry were determined. The effect of subinhibitory concentrations of SCFAs in Salmonella biofilm formation, motility, and gene expression was also evaluated. Butyric acid, propionic acid, and valeric acid showed a MIC of 3750 µg/mL in all strains tested, while the MIC of acetic acid was between 1875 and 3750 µg/mL. Subinhibitory concentrations of SCFAs significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the motility of all Salmonella strains, especially in the presence of acetic acid. Biofilm formation was also significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the presence of SCFAs in some of the Salmonella strains. Salmonella strain. Salmonella Typhimurium T7 showed significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of important virulence genes, such as invA and hilA, especially in the presence of butyric acid. Therefore, SCFAs are promising substances for the inhibition of the growth of foodborne pathogens. However, it is important to avoid the use of subinhibitory concentrations that could increase the virulence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella.
The present study investigated the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance to twenty antibiotics, and class 1 integron and virulence genes of Salmonella isolated from poultry houses of broilers in northwestern Spain between 2011 and 2015. Strains were classified to the serotype level using the Kauffman-White typing scheme and subtyping with enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 1.02%. Sixteen different serotypes were found, with S. typhimurium and S. arizonae 48:z4, z23:- being the most prevalent. A total of 59.70% of strains were resistant to at least one, and 19.70% were resistant to multiple drugs. All Salmonella spp. were susceptible to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, levofloxacin, neomycin, and trimethoprim. The highest level of resistance was to sulfamethoxazole (40.29%), doxycycline (17.91%), and nalidixic acid (17.91%). None of the isolates carried class 1 integron and only isolates of S. enterica subspecies enterica were positive for all virulence factors tested, whereas S. arizonae lacked genes related to replication and invasion in nonphagocytic cells. This study demonstrates that the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in poultry houses of broilers of northwestern Spain is low compared with those found in other studies and in other steps of the food chain.
It takes several steps to bring food from the farm to the fork (dining table), and contamination with food-borne pathogens can occur at any point in the process. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the main microorganisms responsible for foodborne disease in the EU. These two pathogens are able to persist throughout the food supply chain thanks to their ability to form biofilms. Owing to the high prevalence of Salmonella and especially of Campylobacter in the food supply chain and the huge efforts of food authorities to reduce these levels, it is of great importance to fully understand their mechanisms of persistence. Diverse studies have evaluated the biofilm-forming capacity of foodborne pathogens isolated at different steps of food production. Nonetheless, the principal obstacle of these studies is to reproduce the real conditions that microorganisms encounter in the food supply chain. While there are a wide number of Salmonella biofilm studies, information on Campylobacter biofilms is still limited. A comparison between the two microorganisms could help to develop new research in the field of Campylobacter biofilms. Therefore, this review evaluates relevant work in the field of Salmonella and Campylobacter biofilms and the applicability of the data obtained from these studies to real working conditions. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
The human gut microbiota has been revealed in recent years as a factor that plays a decisive role in the maintenance of human health, as well as in the development of many non-communicable diseases. This microbiota can be modulated by various dietary factors, among which complex carbohydrates have a great influence. Although most complex carbohydrates included in the human diet come from vegetables, there are also options to include complex carbohydrates from non-vegetable sources, such as chitin and its derivatives. Chitin, and its derivatives such as chitosan can be obtained from non-vegetable sources, the best being insects, crustacean exoskeletons and fungi. The present review offers a broad perspective of the current knowledge surrounding the impacts of chitin and its derived polysaccharides on the human gut microbiota and the profound need for more in-depth investigations into this topic. Overall, the effects of whole insects or meal on the gut microbiota have contradictory results, possibly due to their high protein content. Better results are obtained for the case of chitin derivatives, regarding both metabolic effects and effects on the gut microbiota composition.
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