RESUMOAvaliou-se o efeito de dietas distintas sobre o comportamento ingestivo (alimentação, ruminação e ócio) em ovinos. Dezesseis carneiros, castrados, confinados em gaiolas de metabolismo, com peso médio de 45,1kg, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro tratamentos: T1-silagem de cana + concentrado; T2-silagem de cana + concentrado + 15% de caroço de algodão; T3-silagem de cana e T4-feno de Tifton 85. Os animais foram submetidos à observação visual durante 24 horas a intervalos de 10 minutos. Houve diferença entre os tratamentos com relação aos tempos despendidos com alimentação e ócio, sendo que o tratamento com feno de Tifton 85 apresentou os mais altos valores, 6,04 h/dia, para o tempo de alimentação, e os mais baixos valores para o tempo de ócio, 7,50 h/dia. Palavras-chave: ovinos, mastigação merícica, ócio, ruminação ABSTRACT The effects of different diets on the ingestive feeding behavior in wethers (
Fecal production and apparent dry matter digestibility (ADMD) were evaluated using external markers (chromium oxide; titanium dioxide; isolated, purified, and enriched lignin (LIPE®); and isolated, purified, and enriched lignin nanoparticles (NANOLIPE®) and internal markers (indigestible DM (IDM), indigestible neutral detergent fiber (INDF), and indigestible acid detergent fiber (IADF) in diets based on Tifton 85 bermuda grass (Cynodon sp.) hay containing different concentrations of a cocoa by-product. Sixteen crossbred (Holstein × Zebu) dairy heifers with a mean live weight of 363.00 ± 27.70 kg were evaluated and distributed in a completely randomized block design with a split-plot arrangement. The plots corresponded to the diets, which differed in the substitution of bermuda grass hay with different concentrations (0, 8, 16, and 24% of DM) of the cocoa by-product, whereas the splitplots represented the indigestible markers. Chromic oxide, LIPE®, NANOLIPE®, and INDF accurately estimated ADMD and fecal production whereas titanium dioxide, IDM, and IADF did not accurately estimate these parameters.
The objective was the genetic selection of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) to formation of groups. Initially, 23 quantitative variables from 28 genotypes were used. After principal-components analysis, this number was reduced to 7 variables (stalk diameter, number of maniva-seed per plant, root length, root diameter, leaf water potential in the morning, leaf water potential in the midday and produtivity of aerial part. A cluster analysis using Chebyshev distance and Mcquitty connection methods were used to generate a dendrogram whose validation was based from cophenetic coefficient of 0.8. Two groups composed of 24 and 4 cassava genotypes were formed. These were indicated in the dendrogram using Ratkowsky, McClain and KL indexes. The second group formed by the tussuma, Caititi, Poti Branca and mulatinha genotypes showed higher frequency of the variables that describe an upper part of cassava. This information is important for the creation of database for rustic species and their improvement.
This study was undertaken to examine the intake, nutrient digestibility, protein and energy balance and feeding behavior of dairy heifers fed diets in which Tifton 85 bermuda grass (Cynodon sp) hay was substituted by a passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) by-product. Sixteen Holstein × Zebu crossbred heifers with an average weight of 363.00 ± 27.7 kg were assigned to four treatments represented by diets in which levels of a passion fruit by-product (0, 12, 24 and 36%; dry matter basis) were added as a substitute for Tifton 85 bermuda grass. The intakes of crude protein and ether extract (P > 0.05) rose as the by-product was added to the diets. Nitrogen intake, absorbed nitrogen and urinary nitrogen also increased with the inclusion of the by-product. Passion fruit by-product can be included in diets for dairy heifers up to the level of 36%.
This study aimed to propose a model called Two-compartment Logistic-von Bertalanffy (LVB) and to identify among the proposed and Two-compartment Logistic (TL) models the one that has the best goodness of fit to the kinetic curve of cumulative gas production (CGP) of sunflower and corn silages alone and combined using the in vitro semi-automated gas production technique. A random block split-plot experimental design was employed in which the inoculums were the blocks, the incubation times were the split-plots, and the experimental diets were: CS - corn silage, SS - sunflower silage (as single roughage), and their mixtures, i.e., 340SS (660 g kg-1 corn silage and 340 g kg-1 sunflower silage) and 660SS (340 g kg-1 corn silage and 660 g kg-1 sunflower silage). The parameters were estimated by the least squares method using the iterative Gauss-Newton process in the software R version 3.4.1. The criteria adopted were: adjusted coefficient of determination (R2adj.), residual mean squares (RMS), mean absolute deviation (MAD), Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and relative efficiency (RE). The TL model had higher R2adj. values compared to LVB, however, such difference may be considered negligible. The LVB model had RE above one, which indicates it is superior to the TL model, in addition to the lowest RMS, MAD, AIC, and BIC values, The Two-compartment Logistic-von Bertalanffy model had the best fit to describe the CGP over time according to the methodology and conditions of the present study.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of substituting Tifton 85 hay (Cynodon sp. cv. Tifton 85) with levels of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) byproduct (0, 8, 16, and 24%, diet dry matter basis) in the diet of 16 Holstein × Gir heifers with an average body weight of 363.0±27.7 kg on their nutrient intake, digestibility, and protein balance. The experimental period was 17 days, and the sample collection period was five days. There was no effect of cocoa byproduct on nutrient intake. However, the byproduct affected the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber, all of which decreased as the level of inclusion of the byproduct in the diet was increased. Nitrogen balance was negatively affected by the inclusion of 24% cocoa byproduct. It is recommended to use cocoa byproduct up to the level of 16% to replace Tifton 85 grass hay in diets for dairy heifers.
This study examined the influence of the external markers chromium oxide (CO), titanium dioxide (TD), isolated, purified and enriched lignin (LIPE®) and isolated, purified, enriched lignin in nanoparticles (NANOLIPE®) as well as the internal markers indigestible dry matter (iDM), indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) and indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF) in diets with inclusion of passion fruit by-product for dairy heifers on the estimation of fecal output and nutrient digestibility. Sixteen Holstein × Zebu crossbred heifers at an average live weight of 363 ± 28 kg were randomly distributed in a completely randomized design where they received diets in which Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.) hay was replaced with passion fruit by-product (0, 12, 24 and 36%, as-fed basis). The CO, LIPE®, NANOLIPE® and iNDF markers did not differ from the total collection method (p > 0.05) in the estimation of fecal output and nutrient digestibility. The TD and iDM markers overestimated, while iADF underestimated fecal output. Under the presented conditions, we recommend using the CO, LIPE®, NANOLIPE® and iNDF markers to estimate fecal output and nutrient digestibility in diets with inclusion of passion fruit by-product for dairy heifers.
This study examines the effect of adding coffee husks (CH), cacao by-product (CBP) and passion fruit by-product (PBP) (fresh-matter basis) in the silage of elephant grass cv. Napier on nutritional characteristics. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement represented by three additives (CH, CBP or PBP) and four inclusion levels (0, 12, 24 or 36%). Four replicates were used per treatment. The material was ensiled in experimental mini-silos that were opened 60 days later for chemical analysis of the produced silages. The dry matter content of the silages with CH and PBP included at levels greater than 25% was adequate. The silage with PBP inclusion showed the highest crude protein levels and the best results for in vitro dry matter digestibility. In the silage containing CH, the neutral detergent fiber content decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of the husks. The silage with CBP showed the lowest dry matter and crude protein levels and the highest pH. In conclusion, the inclusion of up to 36% PBP in the ensiling of elephant grass is recommended, as the resulting material has potential for use in ruminant feeding at times of forage scarcity.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers