RESUMO -Investigaram-se a temperatura retal, a freqüência respiratória e a taxa de evaporação total de ovinos Corriedale sob três temperaturas ambientes, visando uma melhor compreensão dos mecanismos de termorregulação desses animais. Inicialmente, 21 animais adultos foram alojados em câmara climática à temperatura de 45°C, e pressão parcial de vapor (PV) variável, registrando-se a freqüência respiratória (FR) e a temperatura retal (TR). Baseando-se na FR e TR, foram selecionados 10 animais, cinco com os valores mais baixos, assumindo-os como mais adaptados ao calor (grupo 1) e cinco com valores mais altos, assumindo-os como menos adaptados (grupo 2). Os animais selecionados foram mantidos em câmara climática, onde mediram-se novamente TR, FR e taxa de evaporacão total (TET), sob 20, 30 e 40ºC de temperatura do ar e PV variável. Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos classificados, para todas as variáveis medidas. Concluiu-se que a utilização das variáveis fisiológicas TR e FR como parâmetros únicos para a seleção destes animais não é suficiente para avaliar o grau de adaptação a temperaturas elevadas.Palavras-chave: estresse por calor, ovinos, termólise evaporativa Analysis of Some Physiological Variables for the Evaluation of the Degree of Adaptation in Sheep Submitted to Heat StressABSTRACT -It was investigated the rectal temperature, respiratory frequency and total evaporative heat loss rate in Corriedale sheep under three air temperatures, aiming a better comprehension of thermoregulation mechanisms of these animals. Initially, 21 adult animals were housed in climatic chamber under 45ºC and variable air humidity (PV), recording the respiratory frequency (FR) and rectal temperature (TR). Basing on the FR and TR, it was selected 10 animals, five of the lowest values, assuming as being the best heat adapted (group 1) and five of the highest values, assuming as the worst heat adapted (group 2). The selected animals were maintained in climatic chamber, where it was measured again TR, FR and total evaporation rate (TET), under 20, 30 and 40ºC of air temperature and variable PV. There was no statistical difference between the classified groups, for all the measured variables. In conclusion, the use of the physiological variables TR and FR as mainly parameters for these animals selection, is not enough for evaluate the level of adaptation under high temperatures. . Zootec., v.31, n.5, p.2070-2077, 2002 Introdução Geralmente, em um ambiente tropical, o mecanismo físico de termólise considerado mais eficaz é o evaporativo, por não depender do diferencial de temperatura entre o organismo e a atmosfera. Nesses ambientes, a temperatura do ar tende a ser próxima ou maior que a corporal, tornando ineficazes as termólises por condução e convecção (Silva, 2000). Portanto, a evaporação no trato respiratório ou na superfície da pele é um mecanismo essencial para a regulação térmica em homeotérmicos (Cena & Monteith, 1975).Em ambiente de temperatura muito elevada, tanto o excesso como a carência de umidade serão prej...
Fecal production and apparent dry matter digestibility (ADMD) were evaluated using external markers (chromium oxide; titanium dioxide; isolated, purified, and enriched lignin (LIPE®); and isolated, purified, and enriched lignin nanoparticles (NANOLIPE®) and internal markers (indigestible DM (IDM), indigestible neutral detergent fiber (INDF), and indigestible acid detergent fiber (IADF) in diets based on Tifton 85 bermuda grass (Cynodon sp.) hay containing different concentrations of a cocoa by-product. Sixteen crossbred (Holstein × Zebu) dairy heifers with a mean live weight of 363.00 ± 27.70 kg were evaluated and distributed in a completely randomized block design with a split-plot arrangement. The plots corresponded to the diets, which differed in the substitution of bermuda grass hay with different concentrations (0, 8, 16, and 24% of DM) of the cocoa by-product, whereas the splitplots represented the indigestible markers. Chromic oxide, LIPE®, NANOLIPE®, and INDF accurately estimated ADMD and fecal production whereas titanium dioxide, IDM, and IADF did not accurately estimate these parameters.
This study was undertaken to examine the intake, nutrient digestibility, protein and energy balance and feeding behavior of dairy heifers fed diets in which Tifton 85 bermuda grass (Cynodon sp) hay was substituted by a passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) by-product. Sixteen Holstein × Zebu crossbred heifers with an average weight of 363.00 ± 27.7 kg were assigned to four treatments represented by diets in which levels of a passion fruit by-product (0, 12, 24 and 36%; dry matter basis) were added as a substitute for Tifton 85 bermuda grass. The intakes of crude protein and ether extract (P > 0.05) rose as the by-product was added to the diets. Nitrogen intake, absorbed nitrogen and urinary nitrogen also increased with the inclusion of the by-product. Passion fruit by-product can be included in diets for dairy heifers up to the level of 36%.
-The objective of this study was to evaluate the flow of nitrogenous compounds, protein degradability, rumen degradation of total carbohydrate and organic matter and microbial efficiency in heifers subjected to diets containing corn silage, sugarcane or Tifton. For this purpose, the 2,6-diaminopimelic acid (DAPA) technique was adopted and analytical procedures for amino acids by HPLC were adapted. Six rumen-fistulated Holstein-Zebu heifers with 480 kg of initial BW and at 24 months of age kept in individual tie stalls were assigned to two 3 × 3 Latin squares. Omasal digesta dry matter and microbial dry matter flows were determined using the isolated, purified and enriched lignin (LIPE ® ) and DAPA markers, respectively. Isolated bacteria from rumen showed on average 5.84 g/100 g microbial N, 0.25 g/100 g DAPA in dry matter and 44.61 DAPA: N ratio. The forage sources did not influence the flows of nitrogen compounds, except for total omasal flow and non-ammonia N in relation to N intake for the corn silage diet, for which there was an upward trend compared with the other diets. The degradation of the organic matter and total carbohydrates did not differ, averaging 6.1 kg/day and 5.2 kg/day, respectively. The studied forage sources do not influence the flows of nitrogen compounds, except for total omasal flow and non-ammonia N in relation N intake for the corn silage diet, for which there is an upward trend compared with the other diets. Protein degradability and microbial efficiency are similar between evaluated diets.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of substituting Tifton 85 hay (Cynodon sp. cv. Tifton 85) with levels of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) byproduct (0, 8, 16, and 24%, diet dry matter basis) in the diet of 16 Holstein × Gir heifers with an average body weight of 363.0±27.7 kg on their nutrient intake, digestibility, and protein balance. The experimental period was 17 days, and the sample collection period was five days. There was no effect of cocoa byproduct on nutrient intake. However, the byproduct affected the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber, all of which decreased as the level of inclusion of the byproduct in the diet was increased. Nitrogen balance was negatively affected by the inclusion of 24% cocoa byproduct. It is recommended to use cocoa byproduct up to the level of 16% to replace Tifton 85 grass hay in diets for dairy heifers.
This study examined the influence of the external markers chromium oxide (CO), titanium dioxide (TD), isolated, purified and enriched lignin (LIPE®) and isolated, purified, enriched lignin in nanoparticles (NANOLIPE®) as well as the internal markers indigestible dry matter (iDM), indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) and indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF) in diets with inclusion of passion fruit by-product for dairy heifers on the estimation of fecal output and nutrient digestibility. Sixteen Holstein × Zebu crossbred heifers at an average live weight of 363 ± 28 kg were randomly distributed in a completely randomized design where they received diets in which Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.) hay was replaced with passion fruit by-product (0, 12, 24 and 36%, as-fed basis). The CO, LIPE®, NANOLIPE® and iNDF markers did not differ from the total collection method (p > 0.05) in the estimation of fecal output and nutrient digestibility. The TD and iDM markers overestimated, while iADF underestimated fecal output. Under the presented conditions, we recommend using the CO, LIPE®, NANOLIPE® and iNDF markers to estimate fecal output and nutrient digestibility in diets with inclusion of passion fruit by-product for dairy heifers.
na Publicação (CIP) (eDOC BRASIL, Belo Horizonte/MG) P957 Princípios e aplicações da computação no brasil [recurso eletrônico] / Organizador Ernane Rosa Martins. -Ponta Grossa (PR): Atena Editora, 2019. -(Princípios e aplicações da computação no Brasil; v. 1)
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