Seabird rehabilitation is a valuable strategy to mitigate the impacts of oil pollution and other anthropogenic factors, and can significantly contribute to the conservation of penguins. However, infectious diseases such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) can hamper the success of rehabilitation efforts. We combined morphological and molecular diagnostic methods to investigate the epidemiology and pathology of Plasmodium in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at rehabilitation centers along 2500 km of the coastline of Brazil. True prevalence of malarial parasites was estimated between 6.6% and 13.5%. We identified five species, three of which had not been described infecting penguins (P. cathemerium, P. nucleophilum, P. unalis); an additional five distinct Plasmodium lineages were also distinguished, and albeit unidentified these clearly correspond to species that also have not yet been reported in penguins. Our results indicate that the diversity of plasmodia that may infect these birds is greater than previously recognised. Considering the well-defined seasonality observed in this study, it is clear that rehabilitation centers could benefit by narrowing their preventative efforts on penguins maintained or admitted during the Austral spring-summer, particularly by preventing mosquitoes from coming into contact with penguins.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13567-015-0160-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Malaria-associated acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) often results in morbidity and mortality. Murine models to study malaria-associated ALI/ARDS have been described; we still lack a method of distinguishing which mice will develop ALI/ARDS before death. This work aimed to characterize malaria-associated ALI/ARDS in a murine model and to demonstrate the first method to predict whether mice are suffering from ALI/ARDS before death. DBA/2 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA developing ALI/ARDS or hyperparasitemia (HP) were compared using histopathology, PaO2 measurement, pulmonary X-ray, breathing capacity, lung permeability, and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels according to either the day of death or the suggested predictive criteria. We proposed a model to predict malaria-associated ALI/ARDS using breathing patterns (enhanced pause and frequency respiration) and parasitemia as predictive criteria from mice whose cause of death was known to retrospectively diagnose the sacrificed mice as likely to die of ALI/ARDS as early as 7 days after infection. Using this method, we showed increased VEGF levels and increased lung permeability in mice predicted to die of ALI/ARDS. This proposed method for accurately identifying mice suffering from ALI/ARDS before death will enable the use of this model to study the pathogenesis of this disease.
With the aim of supporting the strategic planning of the National Program for Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis, different Brazilian states have been conducting cross-sectional studies, coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply and with scientific support from the University of São Paulo and the University of Brasilia. In Santa Catarina, the State Animal Health Agency (CIDASC) conducted a study on bovine tuberculosis (TB) prevalence and assessment of risk factors in 2012. The state was divided into five regions and, in each region, independent sampling was performed in two steps: (i) cattle herds with reproductive activity were randomly selected; and (ii) in each herd, a sample of females aged 24 months or older underwent the intradermal comparative tuberculin test. A questionnaire was used to collect data on production characteristics and management practices that could be associated with the tuberculosis infection. Herd prevalence of bovine TB was 0.50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.074-0.93%) while the prevalence of TB in adult females was 0.06% (95% CI: 0-0.12%). No significant difference in the prevalence of infected herds and of positive females was observed among the five regions. The logistic regression model revealed that herds with 19 or more females showed an odds ratio (OR) of 7.68 (95% CI: 1.22-48.39) compared to smaller herds, while dairy herds presented an OR of 10.43 (95% CI: 2.00-54.25) relative to beef or dual-purpose herds. The results suggest that dairy herds, in which animals are kept in partial or total confinement, and larger herds, which tend to acquire animals more often, are at a higher risk of bovine TB. Given the low prevalence and the type of higher-risk properties, a bovine TB surveillance system should be targeted at the state's dairy basins, particularly the western region that accounts for the major industries and more intensive dairy farms. (TB). O Estado foi dividido em cinco regiões e, em cada uma delas, foi realizada uma amostragem independente em duas etapas: (i) propriedades com atividade reprodutiva foram selecionadas aleatoriamente; (ii) em cada propriedade, uma amostra de fêmeas com idade igual ou superior a 24 meses foi submetida ao teste tuberculínico intradérmico comparativo. Um questionário foi utilizado para recolher dados sobre as características de produção e práticas de gestão que poderiam estar associados com a infecção tuberculosa. A prevalência de focos de tuberculose bovina foi de 0,50% (95% intervalo de confiança [CI]: 0,074-0,93%), enquanto a prevalência de TB em animais foi de 0,06% (IC 95%: 0-0,12%). Não foi observada diferença significativa na prevalência de focos ou animais entre as cinco regiões. O modelo de regressão logística revelou que rebanhos com 19 ou mais vacas apresentaram um odds ratio (OR) de 7,68 (IC 95%: 1,22-48,39) em comparação com rebanhos menores, enquanto rebanhos leiteiros apresentaram um OR de CI 10,43 (95%: 2.00-54,25) em relação aos rebanhos de corte ou de duplo propósito. ...
SummaryThe magnitude of the basic reproduction ratio R 0 of an epidemic can be estimated in several ways, namely, from the final size of the epidemic, from the average age at first infection, or from the initial growth phase of the outbreak. In this paper, we discuss this last method for estimating R 0 for vectorborne infections. Implicit in these models is the assumption that there is an exponential phase of the outbreaks, which implies that in all cases R 0 > 1. We demonstrate that an outbreak is possible, even in cases where R 0 is less than one, provided that the vector-to-human component of R 0 is greater than one and that a certain number of infected vectors are introduced into the affected population. This theory is applied to two real epidemiological dengue situations in the southeastern part of Brazil, one where R 0 is less than one, and other one where R 0 is greater than one. In both cases, the model mirrors the real situations with reasonable accuracy.keywords basic reproduction number, epidemiology, mathematical models, vector-borne infections, dengue fever
An epidemiological study was carried out in order to characterize the bovine tuberculosis situation and to support the planning and implementation of the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Bovine Tuberculosis in the State of Bahia, owing to the importance of the disease in causing economic burdens and its impact on public health. The State was divided into four regions. In each region, properties were randomly chosen and, a pre-established number of animals was also randomly selected; these animals then subjected to the intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin diagnostic test. Animals with inconclusive test results were retested with the same diagnostic procedure within a minimum interval of 60 days. Within each sampled property, a questionnaire was administered to verify possible risk factors for the disease. In the State, the prevalence of infected herds was 1.6% [1.0-2.6] and that of infected animals 0,21% [0,07; 0,60]. In the regions, the prevalence of infected herds and infected animals were, respectively, 2,0% [1,0; 4,2%] and 2,0% [1,0; 4,2%] In conclusion, it is recommended that the State of Bahia implement a surveillance system for the detection of herds with bovine tuberculosis to certifying them in free herds, with special attention to dairy properties, and develop a solid program of health education so that producers test animals for bovine tuberculosis before introducing them into their herds. para caracterizar a situação da enfermidade no estado. O Estado foi estratificado em quatro regiões. Em cada região, propriedades foram sorteadas aleatoriamente e, dentro dessas, escolheu-se de forma também aleatória um número pré-estabelecido de animais, os quais foram submetidos ao teste tuberculínico Cervical Comparativo. Os animais que resultaram inconclusivos foram retestados com o mesmo procedimento diagnóstico em intervalo mínimo de 60 dias. Em cada propriedade amostrada aplicou-se um questionário para se verificar possíveis fatores de risco para a doença. No Estado, a prevalência de focos foi de 1,6% [1,0; 2,6%] e a de animais 0,21% [0,07; 0,60]. Nas regiões, as prevalências de focos e de animais foram, respectivamente de 2,0% [1,0; 4,2%] e 0,08% [0,035; 0,17] (OR= 9,72), ser propriedade mista (OR= 6,66) e tamanho do rebanho ≥ 18 fêmeas ≥ 24 meses (OR= 8,44). Concluindo, recomenda-se que o Estado da Bahia implemente um sistema de vigilância para detecção e saneamento dos focos de tuberculose bovina, com especial atenção para as propriedades produtoras de leite, e que desenvolva uma sólida ação de educação sanitária para que seus produtores passem a testar os animais para tuberculose bovina antes de introduzi-los em seus plantéis. Palavras-chave: Tuberculose bovina. Prevalência. Fatores de risco. Bahia. Brasil.
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