With the aim of supporting the strategic planning of the National Program for Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis, different Brazilian states have been conducting cross-sectional studies, coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply and with scientific support from the University of São Paulo and the University of Brasilia. In Santa Catarina, the State Animal Health Agency (CIDASC) conducted a study on bovine tuberculosis (TB) prevalence and assessment of risk factors in 2012. The state was divided into five regions and, in each region, independent sampling was performed in two steps: (i) cattle herds with reproductive activity were randomly selected; and (ii) in each herd, a sample of females aged 24 months or older underwent the intradermal comparative tuberculin test. A questionnaire was used to collect data on production characteristics and management practices that could be associated with the tuberculosis infection. Herd prevalence of bovine TB was 0.50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.074-0.93%) while the prevalence of TB in adult females was 0.06% (95% CI: 0-0.12%). No significant difference in the prevalence of infected herds and of positive females was observed among the five regions. The logistic regression model revealed that herds with 19 or more females showed an odds ratio (OR) of 7.68 (95% CI: 1.22-48.39) compared to smaller herds, while dairy herds presented an OR of 10.43 (95% CI: 2.00-54.25) relative to beef or dual-purpose herds. The results suggest that dairy herds, in which animals are kept in partial or total confinement, and larger herds, which tend to acquire animals more often, are at a higher risk of bovine TB. Given the low prevalence and the type of higher-risk properties, a bovine TB surveillance system should be targeted at the state's dairy basins, particularly the western region that accounts for the major industries and more intensive dairy farms. (TB). O Estado foi dividido em cinco regiões e, em cada uma delas, foi realizada uma amostragem independente em duas etapas: (i) propriedades com atividade reprodutiva foram selecionadas aleatoriamente; (ii) em cada propriedade, uma amostra de fêmeas com idade igual ou superior a 24 meses foi submetida ao teste tuberculínico intradérmico comparativo. Um questionário foi utilizado para recolher dados sobre as características de produção e práticas de gestão que poderiam estar associados com a infecção tuberculosa. A prevalência de focos de tuberculose bovina foi de 0,50% (95% intervalo de confiança [CI]: 0,074-0,93%), enquanto a prevalência de TB em animais foi de 0,06% (IC 95%: 0-0,12%). Não foi observada diferença significativa na prevalência de focos ou animais entre as cinco regiões. O modelo de regressão logística revelou que rebanhos com 19 ou mais vacas apresentaram um odds ratio (OR) de 7,68 (IC 95%: 1,22-48,39) em comparação com rebanhos menores, enquanto rebanhos leiteiros apresentaram um OR de CI 10,43 (95%: 2.00-54,25) em relação aos rebanhos de corte ou de duplo propósito. ...
A study was conducted to verify that the State of Santa Catarina has maintained a low prevalence of bovine brucellosis, which would allow the state to move forward with implementing strategies for disease eradication. The state was divided into five regions. In each region, a predetermined number of randomly selected properties was sampled. In each property, blood samples were collected from randomly selected cows with ages equal to or greater than 24 months. Sera from the animals were submitted to a serial testing protocol, with screening by the buffered acidified antigen test and confirmation by the 2-mercaptoethanol test. In each property, a questionnaire was used to identify the risk factors associated with the disease. In the state, the prevalence rate of infected herds was 0.912% [0.297 -2.11] and infected animals was 1.21% [0.09 -4.97]. Relative to the earlier study in 2002, there was no difference. The risk factors associated with the condition of a herd infected with brucellosis were as follows: herd size ≥ 12 cows (OR = 7.47 [2.14 -34.34]) and the presence of flooded areas ). In view of the low prevalence, it is recommended that the state proceed with the implementation of eradication strategies that are based on a surveillance system structured to detect and eliminate infected herds, and supported by an effective compensation fund for the replacement of seropositive animals. Additionally, the State should make a significant effort to educate and supervise producers to ensure the testing of breeding animals for brucellosis before introducing them into their properties. Key words: Brucellosis. Prevalence. Risk factors. Surveillance System. Santa Catarina. Brazil. ResumoFoi realizado um estudo para verificar se Santa Catarina continua com baixas prevalências de brucelose bovina, permitindo ao estado avançar de forma segura no seu projeto de implementação de estratégias de erradicação da doença. O estado foi divido em cinco regiões e em cada uma delas foi amostrado um número preestabelecido de propriedades, aleatoriamente selecionadas. Em cada propriedade foram colhidas amostras de sangue de fêmeas com idade igual ou superior a 24 meses, também selecionadas aleatoriamente. Os soros dos animais foram submetidos a um protocolo de testes em série, com triagem (OR = 7,47 [2,34]) e a presença de áreas alagadiças (OR = 5,68 [1,13]). Tendo em vista a baixa prevalência, recomenda-se que estado deve dar seguimento à implementação de estratégias de erradicação, baseadas na estruturação de sistema de vigilância para detecção e saneamento de focos, apoiado por eficiente fundo de indenização para a reposição de animais positivos aos testes sorológicos. Adicionalmente, o estado deveria realizar um grande esforço de educação e de fiscalização, para que os produtores testem os animais de reprodução para brucelose antes de introduzi-los em suas propriedades. Palavras-chave: Brucelose. Prevalência. Fatores de risco. Sistema de vigilância. Santa Catarina. Brasil.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 fecal shedding in feedlot cattle is common and is a public health concern due to the risk of foodborne transmission that can result in severe, or even fatal, disease in people. Despite a large body of research, few practical and cost-effective farm-level interventions have been identified. In this study, a randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effect of reducing the level of water in automatically refilling water-troughs on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle. Pens in a feedlot in the Texas Panhandle were randomly allocated as control (total number: 17) or intervention (total number: 18) pens. Fecal samples (2,759 in total) were collected both at baseline and three weeks after the intervention, and tested for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 using immunomagnetic bead separation and selective culture. There was a strong statistical association between sampling date and the likelihood of a fecal sample testing positive for E. coli O157:H7. Pen was also a strong predictor of fecal prevalence. Despite accounting for this high level of clustering, a statistically significant association between reduced water levels in the trough and increased prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in the feces was observed (Odds Ratio = 1.6; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.2–2.0; Likelihood Ratio Test: p = 0.02). This is the first time that such an association has been reported, and suggests that increasing water-trough levels may be effective in reducing shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle feces, although further work would be needed to test this hypothesis. Controlling E. coli O157:H7 fecal shedding at the pre-harvest level may lead to a reduced burden of human foodborne illness attributed to this pathogen in beef.
AGRADECIMENTOSAgradeço primeiramente à minha família que me apoiou, em todos os sentidos Amo vocês!!! Aos colegas da CIDASC, grandes batalhadores a campo, que executaram todo este trabalho a campo, enfrentando dificuldades práticas de acesso e contenção de animais, nos mais variados tipos de propriedades existentes no Estado. Não podendo citar todos aqui, cito os 3 que me auxiliaram no "mutirão" em Bom Jardim da Serra, Leonardo, Marina e Marcelo, que mesmo com tempestades, falta de luz, pneu furado e muita lama, conseguimos terminar o trabalho no prazo . After using a two-proportion test to compare the prevalence in this study and in a prior study in the same State, a statistically significant difference was found between the prevalence results only in region 2 (P=0.031). Given the low prevalence (less than 1%), the implementation of eradication strategies, based on a surveillance system, should be encouraged.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.