This review discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and current therapeutic options for venous ulcer. Venous ulcer is a severe clinical manifestation of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). It is responsible for about 70% of chronic ulcers of the lower limbs. The high prevalence of venous ulcer has a significant socioeconomic impact in terms of medical care, days off work and reduced quality of life. Long-term therapeutics are needed to heal venous ulcers and recurrence is quite common, ranging from 54 to 78%. Thrombophlebitis and trauma with long-term immobilization predisposing to deep venous thrombosis are important risk factors for CVI and venous ulcer. The most recent theories about pathogenesis of venous ulcer have associated it with microcirculatory abnormalities and generation of an inflammatory response. Management of venous leg ulcers is based on understanding the pathogenesis. In recent years novel therapeutic approaches for venous ulcers have offered valuable tools for the management of patients with this disorder.
This paper reviews the diagnostic and classificatory concepts of mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome in light of the latest normative publications. It describes the great variability of the clinical expression of mycosis fungoides in its early stages as well as the histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects that help with diagnosis. The diagnostic criteria required for characterizing Sézary syndrome and the staging system used for both mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are described.
Longstanding and large ulcers and recurrences are the main problems encountered by venous ulcer patients. Severe lipodermatosclerosis, previous ulcer history, and time since first ulcer episode ≥ 2 years are significant risk factors.
Venous ulcers are common in adult population. They cause significant socioeconomic impact due to recurrence and the long interval between onset and healing. If venous ulcers are not appropriately managed, they present high rates of healing failure and recurrence. Despite their high prevalence and importance, venous ulcers are often neglected and inadequately managed. This review discusses diagnosis and therapy of lower limb venous ulcers. Clinical diagnosis is based on history and physical examination, emphasizing associated signs and symptoms, and pulse palpation of lower limbs. Doppler must be used to determine the ankle-arm index, and non-invasive exams, such as duplex scan, are requested to evaluate the superficial, deep and perforating venous systems. Accurate clinical and laboratory diagnosis of venous ulcers, as well as appropriate treatment of their complications are fundamental for successful therapy. Efforts must be directed towards healing and avoiding recurrences.
BACKGROUND Venous ulcers have a significant impact on patient quality of life, and constitute a worldwide public health problem. Treatment is complex, with high failure rates. OBJECTIVES To identify clinical and therapeutic factors that influence healing of venous ulcers. METHODS Retrospective cohort study of patients with venous ulcers. Ulcer area was measured at the first visit (T0) and after 6 months (T6) and 1 year (T12). A reduction in ulcer area of 50% or more at T6 and T12 was the outcome of interest, weighted by clinical, demographic and treatment aspects. RESULTS Ninety-four patients were included (137 ulcers). A reduction in ulcer area of 50% or more was seen in 40.1% of patients (95%CI 31.9 to 48.4%) at T6 and 49.6% (95%CI 41.2 to 58.1%) at T12. Complete healing occurred in 16.8% (95%CI 10.5 to 23.1%) at T6 and 27% (95%CI 19.5 to 39.5%) at T12. The lowest ulcer area reductions at T6 were associated with longstanding ulcer (RR=0.95; 95%CI 0.91 to 0.98), poor adherence to compression therapy (RR=4.04; 95%CI 1.31 to 12.41), and infection episodes (RR= 0.42; 95%CI 0.23 to 0.76). At T12, lower reductions were associated with longstanding ulcer (RR=0.95; 95%CI 0.92 to 0.98), longer topical antibiotic use (RR=0.93; 95%CI 0.87 to 0.99), and systemic antibiotic use (RR=0.63; 95%CI 0.40 to 0.99).CONCLUSIONSLongstanding ulcer, infection, poor adherence to compression therapy, and longer topical and systemic antibiotic use were independently correlated with worse healing rates.
Hemostatic and adhesive agents date back to World War II, when homologous fibrin sealant came onto scene. Considering that infectious diseases can be transmitted via human blood, a new heterologous fibrin sealant was standardized in the 1990s. Its components were a serine protease (a thrombin-like enzyme) extracted from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes and a fibrinogen-rich cryoprecipitate extracted from the blood of Bubalus bubalis buffaloes. This new bioproduct has been used as a coagulant, sealant, adhesive and recently as a candidate scaffold for mesenchymal stem cells and bone and cartilage repair. This review discusses the composition of a new heterologous fibrin sealant, and cites published articles related to its preclinical applications aiming at repairing nervous system traumas and regenerating bone marrow. Finally, we present an innovative safety trial I/II that found the product to be a safe and clinically promising candidate for treating chronic venous ulcers. A multicenter clinical trial, phase II/III, with a larger number of participants will be performed to prove the efficacy of an innovative biopharmaceutical product derived from animal venom.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40409-017-0109-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PurposeReporting guidelines (eg, Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials [CONSORT] statement) are intended to improve reporting standards and enhance the transparency and reproducibility of research findings. Despite accessibility of such guidelines, researchers are not required to adhere to them. Our goal was to determine the current status of reporting quality in the medical literature and examine whether adherence of reporting guidelines has improved since the inception of reporting guidelines.Materials and methodsEight reporting guidelines, such as CONSORT, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE), Quality of Reporting of Meta-analysis (QUOROM), STAndards for Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy (STARD), Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE), Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS), and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) were examined. Our inclusion criteria included reviews published between January 1996 to September 2016 which investigated the adherence to reporting guidelines in the literature that addressed clinical trials, systematic reviews, observational studies, meta-analysis, diagnostic accuracy, economic evaluations, and preclinical animal studies that were in English. All reviews were found on Web of Science, Excerpta Medical Database (EMBASE), MEDLINE, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL).ResultsAmong the general searching of 26,819 studies by using the designed searching method, 124 studies were included post screening. We found that 87.9% of the included studies reported suboptimal adherence to reporting guidelines. Factors associated with poor adherence included non-pharmacological interventions, year of publication, and trials concluding with significant results. Improved adherence was associated with better study designs such as allocation concealment, random sequence, large sample sizes, adequately powered studies, multiple authorships, and being published in journals endorsing guidelines.ConclusionWe conclude that the level of adherence to reporting guidelines remains suboptimal. Endorsement of reporting guidelines by journals is important and recommended.
Venous ulcer occurred mainly in the low-income population, who presented with little formal education. Generally, the ulcers were present for a long time and were recurrent, with repercussions for the capabilities of patients to work.
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