Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10 5 ufc/mL each) until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry) and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SEinfected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi) to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. TheSalmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.
This study assessed biofilm formation on polystyrene by Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, L. welshimeri and Escherichia coli, isolated from a slaughtering plant, grown on tryptic soy broth (TSB) using different glucose concentrations. The tested bacteria produced biofilm in at least one of the concentrations used, and some of them were strong biofilm producers.
The objective of this study was to determine fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter spp from poultry and human isolates. Forty-one Campylobacter jejuni isolates (30 of poultry origin and 11 of human origin) and 11 Campylobacter coli isolates (10 of human origin and 1 of poultry origin) were examined for ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and nalidixic acid resistance using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. Thereafter, the isolates were analyzed by PCR–Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assay for detection of Thr-86 mutation. Finally, DNA sequencing was performed for confirmation of gyrA gene mutation. A complete correlation was observed between MICs, PCR-RFLP assay, and sequencing. The results revealed high quinolone resistance rates for C. jejuni (100%) and C. coli (100%) isolates obtained from poultry and moderate resistance for C. jejuni (9.1%) and C. coli (40%) samples of human origin. A mutation in codon 86 of the gyrA gene with a Thr-to-Ile substitution is reported to be the main cause of high resistance to quinolones. This mutation can be analyzed by PCR-RFLP assay, which has been proven to be a simple and fast method for the detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter spp.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of foodborne diseases worldwide. There are few reports on Campylobacter strains isolated from Latin-American countries. Here, 140 C. jejuni strains isolated from cloacal and transport boxes swabs, water from chiller tanks, and broiler carcasses of five poultry companies in Southern Brazil were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyze eight C. jejuni virulence markers: flaA, cadF, and invasion-associated (iam) genes, cdtABC operon (associated with the cytolethal distending toxin), and plasmidial virB11 and wlaN genes were present in 78.5%, 77.8%, 0%, 74.2%, 22.1%, and 10.7% of samples, respectively. There were 25 different virulence profiles: 1 (cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, flaA, and cadF), 2 (cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, flaA, cadF, and virB11), and 3 (cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, flaA, cadF, and wlaN) were the most common (> 60% of strains). We provide insight into factors related to the occurrence of this pathogen and their epidemiology.
Poultry litter reuse in Brazil is a common practice to reduce broiler production costs. Quicklime and shallow fermentation treatments are methods used to reduce microbial contamination and infestation of insects such as
(Panzer). The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical parameters of reused poultry litter to better characterize the effects of quicklime and shallow fermentation on
control. Ammonia and humidity concentrations significantly increased on the litter treated with shallow fermentation and pH when treated with virgin and hydrated quicklime. For
control, shallow fermentation with 2 and 3 L of water and 3 L plus 600g of quicklime/m
eliminated 100% of the insects. Results of assessed physicochemical parameters indicated that the treatments with quicklime and shallow fermentation are inefficient to control
spp. because they do not reach the indexes required for this pathogen elimination, mainly ammonia and pH. Ammonia index produced by microbial fermentation in shallow fermentation treatment eliminates
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