RESUMO.-[Detecção de genes associados à virulência em cepas de Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de frangos na região sul do Brasil.] Salmonella spp. estão entre os principais agentes causadores de doenças transmitidas por alimentos, e o sorovar Salmonella Enteritidis é o mais frequentemente isolado no mundo. A virulência de Salmonella spp. e a sua interação com o hospedeiro são processos complexos que envolvem fatores de virulência para sobreviver às defesas do hospedeiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar genes de virulência em cepas de S. Enteritidis isoladas a partir de fontes avícolas no sul do Brasil. Ensaios de PCR foram desenvolvidos para a detecção de nove genes (lpfA, agfA, sefA, invA, hilA, avrA, sopE, sivH are considered the main agents of foodborne disease and Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the most frequently isolated serovars worldwide. The virulence of Salmonella spp. and their interaction with the host are complex processes involving virulence factors to overcome host defenses. The purpose of this study was to detect virulence genes in S. Enteritidis isolates from poultry in the South of Brazil. PCR-based assays were developed in order to detect nine genes (lpfA, agfA, sefA, invA, hilA, avrA, sopE, sivH and spvC) associated with the virulence in eighty-four isolates of S. Enteritidis isolated from poultry. The invA, hilA, sivH, sefA and avrA genes were present in 100% of the isolates; lpfA and sopE were present in 99%; agfA was present in 96%; and the spvC gene was present in 92%. It was possible to characterize the isolates with four different genetic profiles (P1, P2, P3 and P4), as it follows: P1, positive for all genes; P2, negative only for spvC; P3, negative for agfA; and P4, negative for lpfA, spvC and sopE. The most prevalent profile was P1, which was present in 88% of the isolates. Although all isolates belong to the same serovar, it was possible to observe variations in the presence of these virulence-associated genes between different isolates. The characterization of the mechanisms of virulence circulating in the population of Salmonella Enteritidis is important for a better understanding of its biology and pathogenicity. The frequency of these genes and the establishment of genetic profiles can be used to determine patterns of virulence. These patterns, associated with in vivo studies, may help develop tools to predict the ability of virulence of different strains.
Salmonella Heidelberg is one of the 3 most frequently isolated serovars from human Salmonella cases in Canada, and the fourth most commonly reported Salmonella serovar in human foodborne disease cases in the United States. Since 1962, Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported in poultry and poultry products in Brazil. The poultry industry has focused efforts on reducing salmonellae incidence in live production in an effort to reduce Salmonella in the processing plant. A better understanding of the initial infection in chicks could provide approaches to control Salmonella contamination. The objective of the present study was to evaluate 2 Salmonella Heidelberg strains that differed in the presence of virulence genes invA, agfA, and lpfA; antimicrobial resistance profiles; and epidemiologic profiles on aspects of pathogenicity and intestinal morphology. Newly hatched broiler chicks were inoculated with 2 strains (SH23 and SH35) of Salmonella Heidelberg and cecal morphometry, histopathology, electron microscopy, and bacterial counts in the liver and cecum were assessed. The SH23 and SH35 strains resulted in different changes in villi height and crypt depth and inflammatory cell infiltration in the cecum. The SH35 group had higher liver and cecum bacterial cell counts when compared with SH23 strains.
Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10 5 ufc/mL each) until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry) and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SEinfected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi) to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. TheSalmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.
We analysed the effects of cold stress (19 ± 1°C, 6 h /day, from the first to the seventh day of life) applied to specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. On experimental Day 1 (ED1), chicks were divided into four groups: C (not infected and kept under thermoneutral condition); CS (not infected and cold stressed); PC (Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) infected and kept under thermoneutral condition) and PCS (SH infected and cold stressed). High concentrations of corticosterone were found in the cold stressed birds on ED7 and ED21, with a greater increase in birds of the PCS group. Stress or non-stressed SH-infected birds had high levels of norepinephrine on ED21. On ED21, an increased percentage and number of SH were found in birds of the PCS group. On ED7, a decrease in macrophages presenting MHCII, CD8 + and CD8 + γδ cells was observed in the chickens of the CS group. Decrease was observed in CD3 + cells in the birds of the PCS group and increase in macrophages presenting MHCII cells and of the CD4 + /CD8+ ratio in chickens of the CS group on ED21. There was a decrease in CD8 + γδ cells in birds of the CS group on ED21 and in the CD3 + and CD8 + cell numbers in chickens of the PCS group on ED21. Our results suggest that cold stress applied to chickens in the first 7 days of life increases both the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system activities, leading to long-term immune cell dysfunction, thus allowing increased SH invasion and persistence within the birds' body.
The aim of this research was to evaluate the individual and combined effects of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (sLPS) and fumonisin B(1) (FB) on performance, relative weight of liver, biological parameters, and histological evaluation of several tissues from four hundred thirty-two 1-d-old male broiler chickens divided into 9 treatments according to the dose of FB (0, 100, or 200 mg/kg, from d 1 to d 28) and sLPS (0, 250, or 500 µg/application per bird, every other day, from d 15 to 27) administered. At the end of the experiment (28 d), significant effects caused by sLPS, FB, and the interaction of sLPS × FB were observed on several parameters. Histopathological evaluations showed significant lesions in liver and kidney caused by sLPS, FB, and their association. According to these results, both sLPS and FB (isolated or in association) cause significant effects on performance and biological parameters of broilers at 28 d of age.
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