The antimicrobial activity of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and miramistin (MST) solutions at different concentrations (5¾10 "5 to 0.4 %) and a dressing, containing 0.15 % CPC, were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli after 30 (solutions) and 60 min (fleece) incubation, respectively. Furthermore, the cytotoxic effects of CPC and MST were examined in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and murine fibroblast (L929) cell lines. A dose of 3¾10 "3 % CPC or MST was sufficient to entirely eradicate S. aureus after 30 min incubation. To achieve the same effect, higher concentrations were required against E. coli (0.025 % CPC; 0.0125 % MST) and P. aeruginosa (0.5 % CPC; 0.05 % MST). The CPC-fleece showed a high antiseptic effect against all three bacterial strains, although it did not completely eliminate P. aeruginosa. Both substances showed a high cytotoxic impact at higher tested concentrations (CPC .3¾10 "3 %; MST .8¾10 "4 %). CPC showed high antimicrobial potency at low concentrations against S. aureus, accompanied by low cytotoxic (side) effects at these concentrations, whilst the required minimal concentration to eradicate E. coli and P. aeruginosa was shown to be cytotoxic for keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The necessary antibacterial amounts of MST were lower, but also cytotoxic in direct contact with typical human wound cells. With regard to demographic changes and increasing bacterial resistance, new effective antiseptics, such as CPC and MST, incorporated in wound dressings without releasing an active substance could help to improve the treatment and healing rates of chronic wounds.
The increasing incidence of non-healing wounds constitutes a pivotal socio-economic burden. 60-80% of chronic wounds are colonized by pathogenic microorganisms within a protective extracellular polymeric substance, bearing a great challenge in wound management. Human plasma was used to prepare the biofilm model (hpBIOM), adding pathogens to the plasma and forming Coagulalike discs with integrated pathogens were produced. The antiseptics Octenisept and Lavasorb were tested regarding their antibacterial properties on clinically relevant biofilm-growing bacteria (MRSA, P. aeruginosa) in the hpBIOM. Biofilm-typical glycocalyx-formation was confirmed using immunohistochemical staining. Treatment of a 12 h-maturated biofilm with Octenisept resulted in complete eradication of P. aeruginosa and MRSA after 48 h. Lavasorb proved less effective than Octenisept in this setting. In more mature biofilms (24 h), both antiseptics showed a delayed, partially decreased efficacy. Summarized, the hpBIOM provides essential factors for a translational research approach to be used for detailed human biofilm analyses and evaluation of antimicrobial/-biofilm properties of established and novel therapeutic strategies and products. Octenisept and Lavasorb showed an attenuated efficacy in the hpBIOM compared to planktonic conditions and previously published biofilm-studies, prompting the question for the necessity of introducing new international standards and pre-admission requirements on a translational base.
In this study, polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB) was compared to the molecularly closely related polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) with respect to chemical relationship, antiseptic efficacy and cytotoxicity in vitro. Cytotoxicity for human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and murine fibroblasts (L929) was determined according to ISO EN 10993-5 for both substances. Antimicrobial efficacy tests were performed via determination of the MBC, quantitative suspension method for substances and investigation of two PAPB-or PHMB-containing dressings against Staphyloccoccus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, according to international standards. Prior mass spectrometry was performed for chemical differentiation of the investigated substances. PHMB showed high toxicity even in low concentrations for both tested cell lines and a high antimicrobial efficacy against S. aureus and E. coli. In the case of PAPB, no or only low cytotoxicity was detected after 72 h, whilst comparable antibacterial features are lacking, as PAPB showed no relevant antimicrobial effects. Even though chemically closely related, PAPB proved to be ineffective in bacterial eradication, whilst PHMB showed a high efficacy. The discovery and establishment of safe and effective alternative antiseptics are important issues for the treatment of infected wounds. In particular, rising bacterial resistances to established agents, as well as ongoing discussions of potential toxic or carcinogenic effects emphasize this necessity. Nevertheless, the presented results highlight that even small changes in the chemical structure of related agents such as PHMB and PAPB can dramatically affect their efficacy and, therefore, need to be carefully distinguished and assessed side by side.
BackgroundDue to demographical changes the number of elderly patients depending on oral anticoagulation is expected to rise. Prolonged bleeding times in case of traumatic injuries represent the drawback of these medications, not only in major trauma, but also in superficial wounds. Therefore, dressings capable of accelerating coagulation onset and shortening bleeding times are desirable for these patients.MethodsThe hemostatic potential and physical properties of different types of superficial wound dressings (standard wound pad, two alginates, chitosan, collagen (Lyostypt®), oxidized cellulose, and QuikClot®) were assessed in vitro. For this purpose the clotting times of blood under the influence of the named hemostatics from healthy volunteers were compared with Marcumar® or ASS® treated patients. For that, a newly developed coagulation assay based on spectrophotometric extinction measurements of thrombin activity was used.ResultsThe fastest coagulation onset was observed for oxidized cellulose (Ø 2.47 min), Lantor alginate-l (Ø 2.50 min) and QuikClot® (Ø 3.01 min). Chitosan (Ø 5.32 min) and the collagen Lyostypt® (Ø 7.59 min) induced clotting comparatively late. Regarding physical parameters, QuikClot® showed the lowest absorption capacity and speed while chitosan and both alginates achieved the highest. While oxidized cellulose displayed the best clotting times, unfortunately it also revealed low absorption capacity.ConclusionsAll tested specimens seem to induce clotting independently from the administered type of oral anticoagulant, providing the possibility to neglect the disadvantage in clotting times arising from anticoagulation on a local basis. QuikClot®, oxidized cellulose and unexpectedly alginate-l were superior to chitosan and Lyostypt®. Due to its additional well-known positive effect on wound healing alginate-l should be considered for further investigations.
Certain combinations of B vitamins demonstrate a positive influence on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Vitamins especially promoted fibroblast migration, and a statistically significant induction of keratinocyte proliferation was observed. Therefore, local vitamin application could benefit the physiologic wound healing process.
Treating infected acute and/or chronic wounds still represents a major challenge in medical care. Various interactions of antiseptic dressings with wound environments regarding antimicrobial efficacy remain unclear. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the influence of human acute wound fluid (AWF) on the antimicrobial performance of different antiseptic foam dressings in vitro against typical bacterial wound pathogens. Eight antiseptic polyurethane foam dressings containing either a silver formulation or a polyhexamethylene-biguanide (PHMB) were assessed regarding their antimicrobial potency against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a modified time-kill assay based on ISO EN 20743. The antiseptic efficacy was evaluated standardly as well as under the influence of human AWF after 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours. The specific chemical formulation and concentration of the antiseptic substance (ionic or nanocrystalline silver, silver sulfadiazine, PHMB 0.1%/0.5%) embedded within the dressings seemed to play a key role. For certain dressings (two nanocrystalline and one ionic silver dressing), the antimicrobial efficacy was significantly reduced under the influence of AWF compared to unchallenged test series. Unchallenged the efficacy of PHMB was comparable to silver against P. aeruginosa and even significantly superior against S. aureus and E. coli. Challenged with AWF the reduction rates for silver adjusted or even exceeded (P. aeruginosa) those of PHMB. Within a challenging wound environment, especially some silver formulations demonstrated a reduced bacterial reduction. Regarding the presented in vitro results, the biomolecular interactions of antiseptic wound dressings with wound fluid should be part of more extensive investigations, considering varying factors such as bacterial species and wound (micro)environment to develop targeted therapeutic regimes for the individual.
Biofilms pose a relevant factor for wound healing impairment in chronic wounds. With 78% of all chronic wounds being affected by biofilms, research in this area is of high priority, especially since data for evidence-based selection of appropriate antimicrobials and antiseptics is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm efficacy of commercially available hypochlorous wound irrigation solutions compared to established antimicrobials. Using an innovative complex in-vitro human plasma biofilm model (hpBIOM), quantitative reduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) biofilms by three hypochlorous irrigation solutions [two <0.08% and one 0.2% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO)] was compared to a 0.04% polyhexanide (PHMB) irrigation solution and 0.1% octenidine-dihydrochloride/phenoxyethanol (OCT/PE). Efficacy was compared to a non-challenged planktonic approach, as well as with increased substance volume over a prolonged exposure (up to 72 h). Qualitative visualization of biofilms was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both reference agents (OCT/PE and PHMB) induced significant biofilm reductions within 72 h, whereby high volume OCT/PE even managed complete eradication of P. aeruginosa and MRSA biofilms after 72 h. The tested hypochlorous wound irrigation solutions achieved no relevant penetration and eradication of biofilms despite increased volume and exposure. Only 0.2% NaClO managed a low reduction under prolonged exposure. The results demonstrate that low-dosed hypochlorous wound irrigation solutions are significantly less effective than PHMB-based irrigation solution and OCT/PE, thus unsuitable for biofilm eradication on their own. The used complex hpBIOM thereby mimics the highly challenging clinical wound micro-environment, providing a more profound base for future clinical translation.
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