A concerted effort to tackle the global health problem posed by traumatic brain injury (TBI) is long overdue. TBI is a public health challenge of vast, but insufficiently recognised, proportions. Worldwide, more than 50 million people have a TBI each year, and it is estimated that about half the world's population will have one or more TBIs over their lifetime. TBI is the leading cause of mortality in young adults and a major cause of death and disability across all ages in all countries, with a disproportionate burden of disability and death occurring in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). It has been estimated that TBI costs the global economy approximately $US400 billion annually. Deficiencies in prevention, care, and research urgently need to be addressed to reduce the huge burden and societal costs of TBI. This Commission highlights priorities and provides expert recommendations for all stakeholders—policy makers, funders, health-care professionals, researchers, and patient representatives—on clinical and research strategies to reduce this growing public health problem and improve the lives of people with TBI.Additional co-authors: Endre Czeiter, Marek Czosnyka, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Jens P Dreier, Ann-Christine Duhaime, Ari Ercole, Thomas A van Essen, Valery L Feigin, Guoyi Gao, Joseph Giacino, Laura E Gonzalez-Lara, Russell L Gruen, Deepak Gupta, Jed A Hartings, Sean Hill, Ji-yao Jiang, Naomi Ketharanathan, Erwin J O Kompanje, Linda Lanyon, Steven Laureys, Fiona Lecky, Harvey Levin, Hester F Lingsma, Marc Maegele, Marek Majdan, Geoffrey Manley, Jill Marsteller, Luciana Mascia, Charles McFadyen, Stefania Mondello, Virginia Newcombe, Aarno Palotie, Paul M Parizel, Wilco Peul, James Piercy, Suzanne Polinder, Louis Puybasset, Todd E Rasmussen, Rolf Rossaint, Peter Smielewski, Jeannette Söderberg, Simon J Stanworth, Murray B Stein, Nicole von Steinbüchel, William Stewart, Ewout W Steyerberg, Nino Stocchetti, Anneliese Synnot, Braden Te Ao, Olli Tenovuo, Alice Theadom, Dick Tibboel, Walter Videtta, Kevin K W Wang, W Huw Williams, Kristine Yaffe for the InTBIR Participants and Investigator
In November 2017, the Lancet Neurology Commission on Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) highlighted existing deficiencies in epidemiology, patient characterization, identifying best practice, outcome assessment, and evidence generation. The Commission concluded that C needed to address deficiencies in prevention , and made a recommendation for large collaborative studies which could provide the framework for precision medicine and comparative effectiveness research (CER).
Purpose: Contemporary trauma resuscitation prioritizes control of bleeding and uses major haemorrhage protocols (MHPs) to prevent and treat coagulopathy. We aimed to determine whether augmenting MHPs with Viscoelastic Haemostatic Assays (VHA) would improve outcomes compared to Conventional Coagulation Tests (CCTs). Methods: This was a multi-centre, randomized controlled trial comparing outcomes in trauma patients who received empiric MHPs, augmented by either VHA or CCT-guided interventions. Primary outcome was the proportion of subjects who, at 24 h after injury, were alive and free of massive transfusion (10 or more red cell transfusions). Secondary outcomes included 28-day mortality. Pre-specified subgroups included patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Results: Of 396 patients in the intention to treat analysis, 201 were allocated to VHA and 195 to CCT-guided therapy. At 24 h, there was no difference in the proportion of patients who were alive and free of massive transfusion (VHA: 67%, CCT: 64%, OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.76-1.73). 28-day mortality was not different overall (VHA: 25%, CCT: 28%, OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.54-1.31), nor were there differences in other secondary outcomes or serious adverse events. In pre-specified subgroups, there were no differences in primary outcomes. In the pre-specified subgroup of 74 patients with TBI, 64% were alive and free of massive transfusion at 24 h compared to 46% in the CCT arm (OR 2.12, 95% CI 0.84-5.34). Conclusion: There was no difference in overall outcomes between VHA-and CCT-augmented-major haemorrhage protocols.
The latest major group of plants to evolve were the grasses. These became important in the mid-Paleogene about 40 million years ago. During evolution, leaf CO uptake and transpirational water loss were optimized by the acquisition of grass-specific stomatal complexes. In contrast to the kidney-shaped guard cells (GCs) typical of the dicots such as Arabidopsis, in the grasses and agronomically important cereals, the GCs are dumbbell shaped and are associated with morphologically distinct subsidiary cells (SCs). We studied the molecular basis of GC action in the major cereal crop barley. Upon feeding ABA to xylem sap of an intact barley leaf, stomata closed in a nitrate-dependent manner. This process was initiated by activation of GC SLAC-type anion channel currents. HvSLAC1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes gave rise to S-type anion currents that increased several-fold upon stimulation with >3 mM nitrate. We identified a tandem amino acid residue motif that within the SLAC1 channels differs fundamentally between monocots and dicots. When the motif of nitrate-insensitive dicot Arabidopsis SLAC1 was replaced by the monocot signature, AtSLAC1 converted into a grass-type like nitrate-sensitive channel. Our work reveals a fundamental difference between monocot and dicot GCs and prompts questions into the selective pressures during evolution that resulted in fundamental changes in the regulation of SLAC1 function.
Na-d-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) is rate-limiting for glucose absorption in the small intestine. Shortly after intake of glucose-rich food, SGLT1 abundance in the luminal membrane of the small intestine is increased. This upregulation occurs via glucose-induced acceleration of the release of SGLT1-containing vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN), which is regulated by a domain of protein RS1 (RSC1A1) named RS1-Reg. Dependent on phosphorylation, RS1-Reg blocks release of vesicles containing SGLT1 or concentrative nucleoside transporter 1. The hypothesis has been raised that RS1-Reg binds to different receptor proteins at the TGN, which trigger release of vesicles with different transporters. To identify the presumed receptor proteins, two-hybrid screening was performed. Interaction with ornithine decarboxylase 1 (ODC1), the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, was observed and verified by immunoprecipitation. Binding of RS1-Reg mutants to ODC1 was characterized using surface plasmon resonance. Inhibition of ODC1 activity by RS1-Reg mutants and the ODC1 inhibitor difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) was measured in the absence and presence of glucose. In addition, short-term effects of DFMO, RS1-Reg mutants, the ODC1 product putrescine, and/or glucose on SGLT1 expressed in oocytes of Xenopus laevis were investigated. High-affinity binding of RS1-Reg to ODC1 was demonstrated, and evidence for a glucose binding site in ODC1 was provided. Binding of RS1-Reg to ODC1 inhibits the enzymatic activity at low intracellular glucose, which is blunted at high intracellular glucose. The data suggest that generation of putrescine by ODC1 at the TGN stimulates release of SGLT1-containing vesicles. This indicates a biomedically important role of ODC1 in regulation of glucose homeostasis.
Date palm Phoenix dactylifera is a desert crop well adapted to survive and produce fruits under extreme drought and heat. How are palms under such harsh environmental conditions able to limit transpirational water loss? Here, we analysed the cuticular waxes, stomata structure and function, and molecular biology of guard cells from P. dactylifera. To understand the stomatal response to the water stress phytohormone of the desert plant, we cloned the major elements necessary for guard cell fast abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and reconstituted this ABA signalosome in Xenopus oocytes. The PhoenixSLAC1-type anion channel is regulated by ABA kinase PdOST1. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) demonstrated that date palm guard cells release chloride during stomatal closure. However, in Cl medium, PdOST1 did not activate the desert plant anion channel PdSLAC1 per se. Only when nitrate was present at the extracellular face of the anion channel did the OST1-gated PdSLAC1 open, thus enabling chloride release. In the presence of nitrate, ABA enhanced and accelerated stomatal closure. Our findings indicate that, in date palm, the guard cell osmotic motor driving stomatal closure uses nitrate as the signal to open the major anion channel SLAC1. This initiates guard cell depolarization and the release of anions together with potassium.
Coagulopathy in patients with traumatic brain injury is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality. Although timely and aggressive treatment of coagulopathy is of paramount importance, excessive transfusion of blood products has been linked with poor long-term outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury. A pointof-care thromboelastometric-guided algorithm could assist in creating a more individually tailored approach to each patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of implementing a thromboelastometricguided algorithm in centres that were formerly na€ ıve to thromboelastometry. Hence, we developed such an algorithm and provided training to four centres across Europe to direct the haemostatic management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury. The primary outcome was adherence to the algorithm and timing of the availability of relevant results. Thirty-two patients were included in the study. Complete adherence to the algorithm was observed in 20 out of 32 cases. The availability of thromboelastometric results after hospital admission was reported significantly earlier than conventional coagulation tests (median (IQR [range]) 33 (20-40 [14-250]) min vs. 71 (51-101 [32-290]) min; p = 0.037). Although only 5 out of 32 patients had abnormalities of conventional coagulation tests, 21 out of 32 patients had a coagulopathic baseline thromboelastometric trace. Implementing a thromboelastometric-guided algorithm for the haemostatic therapy of traumatic brain injury is feasible in centres formerly na€ ıve to this technology and may lead to more rapid and precise coagulation management. Further large-scale studies are warranted to confirm the results of this pilot trial and evaluate clinical outcomes.
The antimicrobial activity of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and miramistin (MST) solutions at different concentrations (5¾10 "5 to 0.4 %) and a dressing, containing 0.15 % CPC, were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli after 30 (solutions) and 60 min (fleece) incubation, respectively. Furthermore, the cytotoxic effects of CPC and MST were examined in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and murine fibroblast (L929) cell lines. A dose of 3¾10 "3 % CPC or MST was sufficient to entirely eradicate S. aureus after 30 min incubation. To achieve the same effect, higher concentrations were required against E. coli (0.025 % CPC; 0.0125 % MST) and P. aeruginosa (0.5 % CPC; 0.05 % MST). The CPC-fleece showed a high antiseptic effect against all three bacterial strains, although it did not completely eliminate P. aeruginosa. Both substances showed a high cytotoxic impact at higher tested concentrations (CPC .3¾10 "3 %; MST .8¾10 "4 %). CPC showed high antimicrobial potency at low concentrations against S. aureus, accompanied by low cytotoxic (side) effects at these concentrations, whilst the required minimal concentration to eradicate E. coli and P. aeruginosa was shown to be cytotoxic for keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The necessary antibacterial amounts of MST were lower, but also cytotoxic in direct contact with typical human wound cells. With regard to demographic changes and increasing bacterial resistance, new effective antiseptics, such as CPC and MST, incorporated in wound dressings without releasing an active substance could help to improve the treatment and healing rates of chronic wounds.
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