The antimicrobial activity of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and miramistin (MST) solutions at different concentrations (5¾10 "5 to 0.4 %) and a dressing, containing 0.15 % CPC, were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli after 30 (solutions) and 60 min (fleece) incubation, respectively. Furthermore, the cytotoxic effects of CPC and MST were examined in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and murine fibroblast (L929) cell lines. A dose of 3¾10 "3 % CPC or MST was sufficient to entirely eradicate S. aureus after 30 min incubation. To achieve the same effect, higher concentrations were required against E. coli (0.025 % CPC; 0.0125 % MST) and P. aeruginosa (0.5 % CPC; 0.05 % MST). The CPC-fleece showed a high antiseptic effect against all three bacterial strains, although it did not completely eliminate P. aeruginosa. Both substances showed a high cytotoxic impact at higher tested concentrations (CPC .3¾10 "3 %; MST .8¾10 "4 %). CPC showed high antimicrobial potency at low concentrations against S. aureus, accompanied by low cytotoxic (side) effects at these concentrations, whilst the required minimal concentration to eradicate E. coli and P. aeruginosa was shown to be cytotoxic for keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The necessary antibacterial amounts of MST were lower, but also cytotoxic in direct contact with typical human wound cells. With regard to demographic changes and increasing bacterial resistance, new effective antiseptics, such as CPC and MST, incorporated in wound dressings without releasing an active substance could help to improve the treatment and healing rates of chronic wounds.
In this study, polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB) was compared to the molecularly closely related polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) with respect to chemical relationship, antiseptic efficacy and cytotoxicity in vitro. Cytotoxicity for human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and murine fibroblasts (L929) was determined according to ISO EN 10993-5 for both substances. Antimicrobial efficacy tests were performed via determination of the MBC, quantitative suspension method for substances and investigation of two PAPB-or PHMB-containing dressings against Staphyloccoccus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, according to international standards. Prior mass spectrometry was performed for chemical differentiation of the investigated substances. PHMB showed high toxicity even in low concentrations for both tested cell lines and a high antimicrobial efficacy against S. aureus and E. coli. In the case of PAPB, no or only low cytotoxicity was detected after 72 h, whilst comparable antibacterial features are lacking, as PAPB showed no relevant antimicrobial effects. Even though chemically closely related, PAPB proved to be ineffective in bacterial eradication, whilst PHMB showed a high efficacy. The discovery and establishment of safe and effective alternative antiseptics are important issues for the treatment of infected wounds. In particular, rising bacterial resistances to established agents, as well as ongoing discussions of potential toxic or carcinogenic effects emphasize this necessity. Nevertheless, the presented results highlight that even small changes in the chemical structure of related agents such as PHMB and PAPB can dramatically affect their efficacy and, therefore, need to be carefully distinguished and assessed side by side.
BackgroundControl of translation allows for rapid adaptation of the cell to stimuli, rather than the slower transcriptional control. We presume that translational control is an essential process in the control of adipogenesis, especially in the first hours after hormonal stimulation. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were cultured to confluency and adipogenesis was induced by standard protocols using a hormonal cocktail. Cells were harvested before and 6 hours after hormonal induction. mRNAs attached to ribosomes (polysomal mRNAs) were separated from unbound mRNAs by velocity sedimentation. Pools of polysomal and unbound mRNA fractions were analyzed by microarray analysis. Changes in relative abundance in unbound and polysomal mRNA pools were calculated to detect putative changes in translational activity. Changes of expression levels of selected genes were verified by qPCR and Western blotting.ResultsWe identified 43 genes that shifted towards the polysomal fraction (up-regulated) and 2 genes that shifted towards free mRNA fraction (down-regulated). Interestingly, we found Ghrelin to be down-regulated. Up-regulated genes comprise factors that are nucleic acid binding (eIF4B, HSF1, IRF6, MYC, POLR2a, RPL18, RPL27a, RPL6, RPL7a, RPS18, RPSa, TSC22d3), form part of ribosomes (RPL18, RPL27a, RPL6, RPL7a, RPS18, RPSa), act on the regulation of translation (eIF4B) or transcription (HSF1, IRF6, MYC, TSC22d3). Others act as chaperones (BAG3, HSPA8, HSP90ab1) or in other metabolic or signals transducing processes.ConclusionsWe conclude that a moderate reorganisation of the functionality of the ribosomal machinery and translational activity are very important steps for growth and gene expression control in the initial phase of adipogenesis.
BackgroundDue to demographical changes the number of elderly patients depending on oral anticoagulation is expected to rise. Prolonged bleeding times in case of traumatic injuries represent the drawback of these medications, not only in major trauma, but also in superficial wounds. Therefore, dressings capable of accelerating coagulation onset and shortening bleeding times are desirable for these patients.MethodsThe hemostatic potential and physical properties of different types of superficial wound dressings (standard wound pad, two alginates, chitosan, collagen (Lyostypt®), oxidized cellulose, and QuikClot®) were assessed in vitro. For this purpose the clotting times of blood under the influence of the named hemostatics from healthy volunteers were compared with Marcumar® or ASS® treated patients. For that, a newly developed coagulation assay based on spectrophotometric extinction measurements of thrombin activity was used.ResultsThe fastest coagulation onset was observed for oxidized cellulose (Ø 2.47 min), Lantor alginate-l (Ø 2.50 min) and QuikClot® (Ø 3.01 min). Chitosan (Ø 5.32 min) and the collagen Lyostypt® (Ø 7.59 min) induced clotting comparatively late. Regarding physical parameters, QuikClot® showed the lowest absorption capacity and speed while chitosan and both alginates achieved the highest. While oxidized cellulose displayed the best clotting times, unfortunately it also revealed low absorption capacity.ConclusionsAll tested specimens seem to induce clotting independently from the administered type of oral anticoagulant, providing the possibility to neglect the disadvantage in clotting times arising from anticoagulation on a local basis. QuikClot®, oxidized cellulose and unexpectedly alginate-l were superior to chitosan and Lyostypt®. Due to its additional well-known positive effect on wound healing alginate-l should be considered for further investigations.
Certain combinations of B vitamins demonstrate a positive influence on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Vitamins especially promoted fibroblast migration, and a statistically significant induction of keratinocyte proliferation was observed. Therefore, local vitamin application could benefit the physiologic wound healing process.
We have investigated molecular mechanisms for muscle mass accretion in a non-inbred mouse model (DU6P mice) characterized by extreme muscle mass. This extreme muscle mass was developed during 138 generations of phenotype selection for high protein content. Due to the repeated trait selection a complex setting of different mechanisms was expected to be enriched during the selection experiment. In muscle from 29-week female DU6P mice we have identified robust increases of protein kinase B activation (AKT, Ser-473, up to 2-fold) if compared to 11- and 54-week DU6P mice or controls. While a number of accepted effectors of AKT activation, including IGF-I, IGF-II, insulin/IGF-receptor, myostatin or integrin-linked kinase (ILK), were not correlated with this increase, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) was down-regulated in 29-week female DU6P mice. In addition, higher levels of PTEN phosphorylation were found identifying a second mechanism of PTEN inhibition. Inhibition of PTEN and activation of AKT correlated with specific activation of p70S6 kinase and ribosomal protein S6, reduced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and higher rates of protein synthesis in 29-week female DU6P mice. On the other hand, AKT activation also translated into specific inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) and an increase of muscular glycogen. In muscles from 29-week female DU6P mice a significant increase of protein/DNA was identified, which was not due to a reduction of protein breakdown or to specific increases of translation initiation. Instead our data support the conclusion that a higher rate of protein translation is contributing to the higher muscle mass in mid-aged female DU6P mice. Our results further reveal coevolution of high protein and high glycogen content during the selection experiment and identify PTEN as gate keeper for muscle mass in mid-aged female DU6P mice.
Treating infected acute and/or chronic wounds still represents a major challenge in medical care. Various interactions of antiseptic dressings with wound environments regarding antimicrobial efficacy remain unclear. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the influence of human acute wound fluid (AWF) on the antimicrobial performance of different antiseptic foam dressings in vitro against typical bacterial wound pathogens. Eight antiseptic polyurethane foam dressings containing either a silver formulation or a polyhexamethylene-biguanide (PHMB) were assessed regarding their antimicrobial potency against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a modified time-kill assay based on ISO EN 20743. The antiseptic efficacy was evaluated standardly as well as under the influence of human AWF after 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours. The specific chemical formulation and concentration of the antiseptic substance (ionic or nanocrystalline silver, silver sulfadiazine, PHMB 0.1%/0.5%) embedded within the dressings seemed to play a key role. For certain dressings (two nanocrystalline and one ionic silver dressing), the antimicrobial efficacy was significantly reduced under the influence of AWF compared to unchallenged test series. Unchallenged the efficacy of PHMB was comparable to silver against P. aeruginosa and even significantly superior against S. aureus and E. coli. Challenged with AWF the reduction rates for silver adjusted or even exceeded (P. aeruginosa) those of PHMB. Within a challenging wound environment, especially some silver formulations demonstrated a reduced bacterial reduction. Regarding the presented in vitro results, the biomolecular interactions of antiseptic wound dressings with wound fluid should be part of more extensive investigations, considering varying factors such as bacterial species and wound (micro)environment to develop targeted therapeutic regimes for the individual.
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