Black-striped capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) are diurnal omnivores found on the American continent and have the widest geographic distribution of the neotropical primates. 1 Constant deforestation means that these animals migrate to urban centers, becoming targets of predatory hunting and leading to a significant number of specimens in captivity.So that the veterinary physician can intervene efficaciously in the health of these animals, in addition to clinical knowledge, the choice of the chemical immobilization method of the animal, anesthesia and the anesthetic administration route is fundamental to the success of the procedures. 2The association of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) has been widely used in wild and exotic animals because it requires a small injection volume, is well absorbed intramuscularly, and has a wide safety margin and permits immobilization to anesthesia with minimum cardiopulmonary effect. 3,4 For most species, 2-5 mg/kg are sufficient to promote anesthesia for minimal procedures, but smaller species require a bigger dose. 2 However, the use of this association is still controversial in some species due to a lack of studies. AbstractBackground: Tiletamine-zolazepam is a widely used as an alternative chemical immobilization method in non-human primates, with a safe application pathway and necessary relaxation. In order to determine the electrocardiographic parameters of Sapajus libidinosus after intramuscular tiletamine-zolazepam administration at the dose of 5 mg/kg, nine animals were submitted to anesthesia. Methods:The interpretation of the electrocardiogram determined: heart rate in bpm and heart rhythm, P wave, P-R interval, R wave, QRS complex, T wave, Q-T interval, corrected QT interval and electrical axis. The mean HR was 206 ± 32 bpm. Results:The majority of the monkeys showed normal sinus rhythm, but one animal showed sinus tachycardia. The most commonly observed electrical axis was between +30° and +90°. Two animals presented bigger alterations in the tracing such as low amplitude QRS and T wave bigger than 1/4 of the R wave. Conclusions:The administration of tiletamine-zolazepam was safe and efficacious, with minimal cardiovascular effects. K E Y W O R D Sanesthesia, electrocardiogram, primate | 155 de LA SALLeS et AL.
Background The aim of study was to evaluate the efficacy of the supraclavicular brachial plexus block technique in Sapajus libidinosus. Methods Were used eight animals, which were sedated, anesthetized, kept under hypnosis, and submitted to plexus block using a neurolocalizer. The physiological parameters, the nociception and response threshold (mA), were evaluated before and after the block. The response to electrical stimulation and cutaneous sensitivity were evaluated. The groups were compared by the Tukey or Friedman test at 5%. Results The technique promoted blockage of the plexus, and movement of the thoracic limb in response to electrical stimulation decreased after 10 minutes. The applied milliampere increased after 5 minutes. The cutaneous sensitivity reflex decreased. The average time of return of spontaneous limb movement exceeded 50 minutes. Conclusions The use of 5mg/kg of lidocaine 2% promoted loss of cutaneous sensitivity and limb muscle relaxation during the evaluation period.
Comparative anatomy the basis for studies of evolution, and radiographic and tomographic aspects, as auxiliary methods in the investigation of anatomical particularities, reinforce evolutionary research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the vertebrae, sternum, and ribs of the capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus) by means of anatomical dissection and radiographic and tomographic images. To this purpose, four cadavers were used in the anatomical analysis and five living animals for the imaging exams. The bones were described and compared with data from other primates species found in literature. Student's t-test for independent samples was performed. The vertebral column of the comprises seven cervical, 13 or 14 thoracic, five or six lumbar, two or three sacral, and 23 or 24 caudal vertebrae. The atlas is characterized by three foramina on the wing. The seventh cervical vertebra had a transverse foramen in one specimen. The anticlinal
Macroscopic bone analysis and evaluation through imaging methods are essential in the recognition of natural and altered structures. Therefore, this study aimed at describing the osteology the thoracic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in bone pieces, identifying them in radiographic and tomographic images. For this, four cadavers were used in the macroscopic analysis and five animals for the imaging exams, of which four were euthanized and added to the macroscopic stage. For imaging exams, the animals were kept anesthetized. All bones were documented, structures described, and compared with literature data from human and nonhuman primates. There was no statistical difference between males and females regarding the length of the forelimb bones. Most of the bone structures of the scapula were well identified in the imaging methods, being more restricted in the ventrodorsal projection. The clavicle presented very limited visualization. The humerus, as well as the radius and ulna, were not well portrayed in their proximal and distal epiphyses by radiography. However, they were well identified on tomography. All structures described in the macroscopic image of the carpal and metacarpal bones could be identified through radiography and tomography, and the radiographic examination of this region is an excellent method for identifying fractures. The glenoid notch of the scapula was not visualized by any imaging method. S. libidinosus presented anatomical characteristics more similar to those of neotropical primates and man, being a great indicator of an experimental model for studies in these species.
Background: Clinical care of cats with urethral obstruction is a common routine in feline clinical medicine and the re-establishment of urinary flow is essential for long-lasting correction of the pathophysiological alterations presented. For this chemical restraint is usually employed, that together with the alteration, increases the anesthetic risk of these patients. Improvement in anesthetic techniques, especially the loco-regional, may contribute to reducing the anesthetic risk of these patients and facilitate maneuvers to clear the obstruction. Thus the objective of the present study was to describe and assess the bilateral block technique of the pudendal nerve in 16 cats with urethral obstruction.Materials, Methods & Results: Sixteen male crossbred cats were used, with partial or total urethral obstruction, attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. The anesthetic block of the pudendal nerve trunk was carried out by placing the local anesthetic close to the ventral foramen of the second sacral vertebra, using a 13 x 0.45 mm needle attached to a 1 mL syringe. To assess the effectiveness of the bilateral block, the analgesia promoted was assessed using the substitute (“Reaction to Palpating the Surgical Wound” of subscale 1 (pain expression) of the “Compound Multi-dimensional Scale to Assess Post Operational Pain in Cats”. This assessment was made before the bilateral block (M0) and 10 min afterwards (M1) and the scores ranged from 0 to 3. In addition, a segmental assessment of the urethra was made, where, by passing a probe the sensitivity was assessed of the urethral ostium, penile and pelvic urethra and the relaxing of the external urethral sphincter. This assessment was made at M1 and classified as present or absent. In the cases where the bilateral block was inefficient, the technique was repeated, in the same locations and at the same dose as initially administered, and a new assessment (M2) was made 10 minutes after the second administration. In 12 of the 16 patients assessed the bilateral block was made once. The following were observed in these patients at M1: reduction in the reaction to penile manipulation (P = 0.003), total relaxation of the external urethral sphincter and absence of sensitivity to passing the probe through the penile urethra (P = 0.000) and insensitivity of the ostium urethrae (P = 0.006). In the animals in which the anesthetic bilateral block was repeated (4/16) the value of p adjusted for penile manipulation was 0.05. There was no reaction to the probe passage through the ostium urethrae and the penile urethra or contraction of the external urethral sphincter in 3 of the 4 animals (P = 0.625). Considering the total number of animals assessed, the urethral obstruction of the pudendal nerve trunk, carried out one or twice, caused statistically significant (P = 0.004) insensitivity to penile manipulation, probing of the ostium urethrae and the penile urethra and total relaxation of the external urethral sphincter in 14 of the 16 animals. In three patients concomitant anesthetic bilateral block was observed of the sciatic nerve, bilateral (two animals) or unilateral (one animal).Discussion: studies on the feline pudendal nerve have demonstrated that the sensitive and motor bilateral block of this nerve is possible, as corroborated by the present study. Although an atomic study had shown the possibility of concomitant bilateral block of the sciatic nerve, and therefore, according to the authors, the technique should not be recommended, this finding did not demonstrate great clinical relevance, because in most cases the patients remained under fluid therapy throughout the anesthetic recovery period (about two hours) and therefore with restricted movement. Nevertheless, studies should be carried out to improve this technique.
The knowledge of anatomy and imaging exams emerges as an important tool in the study of evolutionary processes of a species, in the elaboration of diagnosis, and the successful choice of the appropriate clinical and surgical procedures. Therefore, this study aims to describe the osteology of the hind limb of Sapajus libidinosus by means of gross, radiographic, and tomographic images. Four cadavers were used in the macroscopic analysis and five animals for the imaging exams, of which four were eventually euthanized and added to the macroscopic study. For imaging exams, they were kept anesthetized. All bones of the hind limb were documented, their structures were described, and compared with data in the literature from human and nonhuman primates. We have performed Student's t test for independent samples. There was no statistical difference between the sexes regarding the length of the hind limb bones. The coxal bone was largely well described using imaging methods. A small penile bone was present at the tip of the penis and it could be identified by all analysis methods. The femur, as well as the tibia and fibula, were not well portrayed in their proximal and distal epiphyses by radiography (Rx). However, they were well identified on tomography. No third trochanter was observed in the femur and the patella had a triangular shape. All the structures described by gross anatomy of the tarsus and metatarsus could be identified by Rx and tomography. More subtle structures, such as the popliteal notch on the tibia, and the gluteal tuberosity pectineal line and facies aspera on the coxal bone, were not identified by medical imaging. S. libidinosus presented anatomical characteristics that were similar to those of larger New World and Old World monkeys, including man. This suggests it's value as an experimental model for studies in recent primates.
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