The production of four strains of edible mushroom Lentinula edodes was evaluated through solid-state fermentation (SSF) of vineyard pruning (VP), barley straw (BS), and wheat straw (WS). Biological efficiency, proximal composition, and energy value of the fruiting bodies, as well as substrate chemical changes after harvest, were determined. The shortest primordium formation time (28 days), highest biological efficiency (93.25%), highest yield (37.46%), and shortest production cycle (6 days) were observed in VP. The fruiting bodies obtained from VP had high energy value (379.09 to 392.95 kcal) and contents of protein (12.37 to 17.19%), but low contents of fat (1.82 to 2.15%). After SSF, phenol concentration decreased on VP (1.2 mmol/L) and BS (0.31 mmol/L), but on WS remained practically the same. Hemicellulose decreased in all substrates; cellulose increased on WS and decreased in the rest of the treatments. Lignin decreased on WS and BS, but its concentration increased on VP. The variability observed in the degradation capacity of lignocellulosic components was influenced by the substrate's nature, environmental factors, and genetic factors among strains. VP has great potential for shiitake production due to its low cost, short production cycles, and high biological efficiency.
Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.
The antagonistic effect of six Pleurotus spp. strains was studied in confrontation with three strains of Trichoderma spp. Pleurotus strains were cultivated on sterile coffee pulp, with and without a Trichoderma inoculant. Laccase, Mn peroxidase and endoglucanase activities were determined during incubation. Laccase production was also studied by PAGE analysis to detect enzymatic isoforms. Results show that the presence of Trichoderma induced a significant increase in oxidase production by the Pleurotus strains. Nevertheless, Trichoderma was not observed to induce laccase isoforms.
Laccases are phenoloxidases involved in aromatic compound transformation but also in stress response towards antagonist species such as Trichoderma sp. In this study intracellular isoforms of laccases produced by Pleurotus ostreatus in liquid cultures with or without Trichoderma longibrachiatum showed five isoforms with various intensities depending on the culture conditions suggesting a basal expression of these enzymes, which can be induced by interspecific interactions. A first attempt to analyse the induction of P. ostreatus laccase-gene expression by a biotic factor was realized using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. We showed that the transcription of a laccase gene of P. ostreatus can be modified by a biotic stress such as T. longibrachiatum.
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